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Study
March 2009

Necrobiotic Xanthogranuloma: A Review of 17 Cases With Emphasis on Clinical and Pathologic Correlation

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (Drs Wood and Abbott), Division of Laboratory Dermatology (Drs Wagner and Gibson), and Division of Anatomic Pathology (Dr Gibson), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Arch Dermatol. 2009;145(3):279-284. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2008.583
Abstract

Objective  To identify correlations between clinical presentation, specific histopathologic findings, and subsequent disease course in patients with necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG).

Design  Retrospective review of medical records and histopathologic examination of fixed tissue samples.

Setting  Tertiary care medical center.

Patients  Seventeen patients with a diagnosis of NXG established between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2007.

Main Outcome Measures  Description and distribution of clinical lesions, presence of monoclonal gammopathy, multiple myeloma, and correlation with microscopic patterns of skin lesions.

Results:  Eleven patients (65%) showed involvement of the periorbital area, and the trunk was affected in 8 patients (47%). Twelve patients (71%) had a monoclonal gammopathy; of these, 3 (18%) had multiple myeloma. Histopathologic examination of 12 patients showed findings consistent with NXG, including a bandlike pattern of necrobiotic granulomatous inflammation, atypical giant cells, cholesterol clefts, and plasma cells. No correlations were identified between clinical presentation and specific histopathologic findings. Although most patients had a serum monoclonal gammopathy, staining with antibodies to CD3, CD20, κ light chains, and λ light chains showed polytypic lymphocytes and plasma cells in all cases.

Conclusions  The association between NXG and paraproteinemia is well documented and corroborated by this study. However, the skin lesions in NXG represent reactive inflammation and are not associated with the presence of monoclonal plasma cells or multiple myeloma.

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