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Original Investigation
Sept/Oct 2018

Long-term Outcomes of Temporal Hollowing Augmentation by Targeted Volume Restoration of Fat Compartments in Chinese Adults

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2018;20(5):387-393. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2018.0165
Key Points

Question  Is the targeted fat-grafting technique an effective and safe procedure for temporal hollowing augmentation?

Findings  In this cohort study of 96 patients, 142 autologous fat-grafting procedures were performed. A low complication rate was reported, and all patients showed an improved appearance after the fat-grafting procedure, with 74% of the temples exhibiting clinical improvement by more than 2 grades.

Meaning  This technique can yield a natural, long-term result in temporal augmentation and avoid severe neurovascular injury.


Importance  Previous anatomical and clinical studies have suggested that targeted restoration of the volume and distribution of fat compartments using appropriate cannula entry sites and injection planes is an excellent fat-grafting technique for facial contouring and hand rejuvenation.

Objective  To perform subjective and objective evaluations of the safe and effective profile of the targeted fat-grafting technique for temporal hollowing augmentation.

Design, Setting, and Participations  In a retrospective cohort study, a total of 96 consecutive patients with temporal hollowing were treated at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China, with the targeted fat-grafting technique from January 1, 2009, to January 1, 2017.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The safety and efficacy profile of this technique was evaluated by the following methods: (1) a quantitative measurement of fat-graft survival and temporal augmentation rates by using 3-dimensional laser scanning, (2) a subjective assessment using a satisfaction survey and the Hollowness Severity Rating Scale (grades range from 0-3, with higher grades representing more hollowness), and (3) the complication rate.

Results  Of the 96 study patients, 94 (97.9%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 34.4 (7.4) years. Of the 142 autologous fat-grafting procedures performed, the mean (SD) total follow-up time was 16.3 (3.2) months, with a mean (SD) of 1.5 (0.7) procedures performed. The mean (SD) baseline volume requirement per temple for each patient was 12.8 (4.8) mL, and the total volume of the fat graft per temple was 17.8 (7.5) mL. Quantitative analysis revealed that the mean (SD) total augmentation volume per temple was 11.7 (3.0) mL, the total survival rate of the fat grafts was 65.7% (12.6%), and total augmentation rate of hollowness was 91.4% (23.4%). Subjective analysis revealed that all patients showed an improved appearance after fat grafting, and 142 temples (74.0%) exhibited clinical improvement by more than 2 grades. In all, 88 patients (91.7%) were satisfied with the outcomes, with a low complication rate reported.

Conclusions and Relevance  The targeted fat-grafting technique allows the transplant of fat tissue into 4 separate fat compartments in a double-plane manner through a unique cannula entry site that avoids severe neurovascular injury. The long-term results demonstrate that this technique is an effective, reproducible, and safe approach for temporal hollowing augmentation.

Level of Evidence  4.