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Research Letter
Jan/Feb 2019

Development of a Novel, Low-Cost, High-fidelity Cleft Lip Repair Surgical Simulator Using Computer-Aided Design and 3-Dimensional Printing

Author Affiliations
  • 1Pediatric Division, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan, CS Mott Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor
  • 2Department of Learning Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2019;21(1):77-79. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2018.1237

Surgical simulators have the potential to support safe, standardized, competency-based surgical education. For training in cleft lip repair, adult cadaveric simulators lack accurate representation of this predominately pediatric procedure. Cleft lip repair educational devices are almost exclusively virtual reality based, using computer graphics with real-time haptic feedback.1,2 Only 1 physical model that lacks validation for surgical rehearsal exists in the literature.3 This study proposes and evaluates a cleft lip repair simulator for trainee education.