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To determine the use of the 3 major classes of antiplatelet drugs (aspirin, thienopyridines, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors), their management in the perioperative period, and the risks associated with premature withdrawal.
We reviewed the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases using the terms antiplatelet agents in the perioperative period, antiplatelet agents and management of bleeding, drug-eluting stents and stent thrombosis, substitutes for antiplatelet agents, and premature withdrawal of antiplatelet agents.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials; prospective observational studies; review articles; clinical registry data; and guidelines of professional bodies pertaining to antiplatelet agents were included.
Two researchers independently read the selected abstracts and selected the studies that matched the inclusion criteria. Any discordance between the 2 researchers was resolved by discussion so that 99 articles were finally included.
Aspirin use should not be stopped in the perioperative period unless the risk of bleeding exceeds the thrombotic risk from withholding the drug. With the exception of recent drug-eluting stent implantation, clopidogrel bisulfate use should be stopped at least 5 days prior to most elective surgery. Use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors must be discontinued preoperatively for more than 12 hours to allow normal hemostasis. Premature withdrawal of antiplatelet agents is associated with a 10% risk of all vascular events. Following drug-eluting stent implantation, withdrawal is associated with stent thrombosis and potentially fatal consequences. No definitive guidelines exist to manage patients who are actively bleeding while taking these drugs.
To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which high inspired oxygen concentrations were compared with standard concentrations to assess the effect on the development of surgical site infections (SSIs).
A systematic literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and included a manual search of references of original articles, poster presentations, and abstracts from major meetings (“gray” literature).
Twenty-one of 2167 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 5 randomized controlled trials (3001 patients) assessed the effect of perioperative supplemental oxygen use on the SSI rate. Studies used a treatment-inspired oxygen concentration of 80%. Maximum follow-up was 30 days.
Data were abstracted by 3 independent reviewers using a standardized data collection form. Relative risks were reported using a fixed-effects model. Results were subjected to publication bias testing and sensitivity analyses.
Infection rates were 12.0% in the control group and 9.0% in the hyperoxic group, with relative risk reduction of 25.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1%-40.1%) and absolute risk reduction of 3.0% (95% CI, 1.1%-5.3%). The overall risk ratio was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.599-0.919; P = .006). The benefit from increasing oxygen concentration was greater in colorectal-specific procedures, with a risk ratio of 0.556 (95% CI, 0.383-0.808; P = .002).
Perioperative supplemental oxygen therapy exerts a significant beneficial effect in the prevention of SSIs. We recommend its use along with maintenance of normothermia, meticulous glycemic control, and preservation of intravascular volume perioperatively in the prevention of SSIs.
Approximately 25% of Staphylococcus aureus carriers have exclusive throat carriage. We aimed to identify the populations at risk for exclusive throat carriage to improve sensitivity to detect carriers.
Four groups underwent nasal and throat screening for S aureus. Three groups of individuals in the community (n = 2632) with different estimated levels of exposure to the health care system (HCS) were screened, including 1500 healthy blood donors, 498 patients from a school of dental medicine, and 634 health care workers (HCWs) at a trade fair. The fourth group comprised in-hospital patients and HCWs (n = 832) and was considered the group with the highest estimated exposure to the HCS. As a primary outcome, we analyzed risk factors for exclusive throat carriage in exclusive throat carriers vs all nasal carriers.
Of 3464 individuals screened, 428 (12.4%) had exclusive throat carriage, and 1260 (36.4%) had carriage in the nares only or in the nares and the throat. The most important independent risk factor for exclusive throat carriage was age 30 years or younger (odds ratio, 1.66; P < .001). Exposure to the HCS was a significant protective factor for exclusive throat carriage (odds ratio, 0.67; P = .001). Healthy blood donors were almost twice as likely to have exclusive throat carriage than in-hospital patients and HCWs (30.2% vs 18.4% of all carriers, P < .001).
Absence of exposure to the HCS and younger age predicted exclusive throat carriers, a population at high risk for community-onset methicillin-resistant S aureus. Screening for S aureus should include swabs from the anterior nares and from the throat to improve the likelihood of detecting carriers.
To describe the combined transcaruncular and transconjunctival approach in isolated large medial orbital wall fractures and to study the implications of uncorrected posterior orbital volume on postoperative enophthalmos.
A retrospective medical record review was performed of 23 consecutive patients who underwent reduction surgery for isolated large medial orbital wall fractures using the combined transcaruncular and transconjunctival approach between February 1, 2003, and October 31, 2007. The unaffected contralateral orbital volume was assumed to represent the pretrauma volume of the affected orbit, and the uncorrected posterior orbital volume after reduction was determined using a software program.
The mean (SD) volume of the affected orbit changed from 26.00 (2.01) cm3 to 24.08 (2.06) cm3 after reduction, which was still larger than the contralateral unaffected orbit by 1.48 (0.83) cm3. Despite the uncorrected volume in the most posterior portion of the medial wall, the mean (SD) postoperative enophthalmos measured only 0.17 (0.29) mm using Hertel exophthalmometry at a mean follow-up of 8.5 months.
The combined transconjunctival and transcaruncular approach results in excellent outcomes in terms of prevention of postoperative enophthalmos of the large medial wall fracture without substantial complications. The far posterior medial volume may not contribute significantly to the development of posttraumatic enophthalmos.
Abstracts: In Other Archives Journals. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2010;12(1):70–71. doi:
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