[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
Original Article
July 2007

Temporalis Tendon Transfer as Part of a Comprehensive Approach to Facial Reanimation

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Correspondence: Patrick J. Byrne, MD, Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 601 N Caroline St, Sixth Floor, Baltimore, MD 21287-1910 (pbyrne2@jhmi.edu).

Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2007;9(4):234-241. doi:10.1001/archfaci.9.4.234

Objective  To report an approach to facial paralysis in patients for whom dynamic adjacent muscle transfer is determined to be the best treatment option.

Methods  Retrospective review of 7 consecutive patients who underwent orthodromic transfer of the temporalis muscle insertion for the treatment of long-standing facial paralysis. Patients underwent facial-retraining physical therapy before and shortly after the procedure. Outcomes measured included patient satisfaction, objective measurements of oral commissure elevation with smiling, and physician grading of preoperative and postoperative patient photographs. Medical records were reviewed for complications.

Results  Patient satisfaction was high, with a mean score of 8.5 (possible score of 10). Four patients were physician graded as excellent to superb. The other 3 patients were rated as having good postoperative results. Movement was identified in every patient and ranged from 1.6 to 8.5 mm, with mean movement of the oral commissure of 4.2 mm. One patient developed postoperative salivary fluid collection that required drainage.

Conclusions  Temporalis tendon transfer is a relatively easy procedure to perform that has distinct advantages compared with other forms of facial reanimation and provides very good results. This procedure results in improved form and function, may often be performed in a minimally invasive manner, and eliminates the facial asymmetry typically produced by temporalis transfer.