Despite a high prevalence of kidney disease (KD)—ranging from 30% to 60%—among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD)1 and the association of KD with worse cardiovascular outcomes,2 two previous systematic reviews observed underrepresentation of patients with KD in randomized clinical trials of cardiovascular interventions published from 1985 through 2005.1,2 Eighty-six of 153 (56.2%) to 69 of 86 trials (80.2%) excluded patients with KD, and only 6 of 86 (7.0%) to 15 of 153 (9.8%) studies reported patients’ kidney function at the start of the trial.
Ishida JH, Johansen KL. Exclusion of Patients With Kidney Disease From Cardiovascular Trials. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(1):124–125. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.6403
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