More than 50 million surgical procedures are performed annually in the United States1 and it has been estimated that nearly 1 million adverse cardiac events occur each year following noncardiac operations.2 In fact, cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death within 30 days of noncardiac surgery.3 Multiple factors unique to the postoperative environment, such as sympathetic stimulation, hypercoagulable state, inflammation, hypotension, hypothermia, and tachycardia, are thought to contribute to occurrence of adverse cardiac events.3 Approximately half of patients who experience a perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) have evidence of plaque rupture (type 1 MI) with the remainder related to ischemia from supply/demand mismatch (type 2 MI).4
Brown DL, Redberg RF. Continuing Use of Prophylactic Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Despite Evidence of No Benefit: Déjà Vu All Over Again. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(5):597–598. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.0600
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