In Reply Dr Prazeres makes salient points regarding overuse that we would like to emphasize. Despite working within different health care systems, with shared research and medical cultures, many aspects of overuse likely apply across countries.
Dr Prazeres highlights physician emphasis on performing often harmful prostate-specific antigen tests over counseling patients to make highly beneficial behavioral changes such as smoking cessation. This is a great example of the opportunity cost of overuse. The time and energy expended on prostate-specific antigen testing and follow-up tests and treatment can distract from care that is much more likely to help patients lead healthier lives.1
Morgan DJ, Dhruva SS, Korenstein D. Medical Overuse of Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing and Overprescription of Antibiotics—Reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(3):432–433. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.8534
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