[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
Figure 1.  Inclusion Criteria for Hip-Hop Music Video Analysis
Inclusion Criteria for Hip-Hop Music Video Analysis
Figure 2.  Proportion of Combustible and Electronic Product Use in Music Videos, by Year
Proportion of Combustible and Electronic Product Use in Music Videos, by Year
Figure 3.  Proportion of Combustible and Electronic Product Use to Brand Placement in Music Videos, by Year
Proportion of Combustible and Electronic Product Use to Brand Placement in Music Videos, by Year
Figure 4.  Proportion of Primary and Secondary Use of Combustible Products, Electronic Products, and Exhaled Smoke or Vapor in Music Videos
Proportion of Primary and Secondary Use of Combustible Products, Electronic Products, and Exhaled Smoke or Vapor in Music Videos

The numbers for the categories are 150 of 364 for Other people, exclusive; 91 of 364 for Main/featured musical artist and other people; and 123 of 364 for Main/featured artist, exclusive.

Figure 5.  Proportion of Music Videos Containing Combustible Use, Electronic Use, or Smoke or Vapor, by Quartile of Number of Views on YouTube
Proportion of Music Videos Containing Combustible Use, Electronic Use, or Smoke or Vapor, by Quartile of Number of Views on YouTube
1.
Hip-hop and R&B surpass rock as biggest US music genre. Reuters. January 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-music-2017/hip-hop-and-rb-surpass-rock-as-biggest-u-s-music-genre-idUSKBN1ET258. Accessed March 23, 2018.
2.
Rose  T.  Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press; 1994.
3.
Morgan  M, Bennett  D.  Hip-hop & the global imprint of a Black cultural form.  Daedalus. 2011;140(2):176-196. doi:10.1162/DAED_a_00086Google ScholarCrossref
4.
Kitwana  B.  Why White Kids Love Hip Hop: Wankstas, Wiggers, Wannabes, and the New Reality of Race in America. New York, NY: Basic Civitas Books; 2006.
5.
Music  Nielsen. Audience Insights, Hip-Hop/Rap Fans: An Uncommon Perspective of The Hip-Hop/Rap Music Fan.; 2017.
6.
Hall  R, Caracciolo  A, Robinson  K. 1-800-273-8255. 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kb24RrHIbFk. Accessed March 21, 2018.
7.
Jackson  K, Asghedom  E. FDT. 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WkZ5e94QnWk. Accessed March 21, 2018.
8.
Anderson  S, Felton  J. Light. 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhxm35g3Qa8. Accessed March 21, 2018.
9.
Haggerty  B, Lewis  R. Fences. Otherside. 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvDQy53eldY. Accessed March 21, 2018.
10.
Dyson  ME. The Culture of Hip-Hop. In: Neal  MA, Forman  M, eds.  That’s the Joint!: The Hip-Hop Studies Reader. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge; 2011:chap 7.
11.
Dyson  ME.  Jay-Z, Nas. Know What I Mean?: Reflections on Hip-Hop. New York, NY: Basic Civitas Books; 2010.
12.
DuRant  RH, Rome  ES, Rich  M, Allred  E, Emans  SJ, Woods  ER.  Tobacco and alcohol use behaviors portrayed in music videos: a content analysis.  Am J Public Health. 1997;87(7):1131-1135. doi:10.2105/AJPH.87.7.1131PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
13.
Weitzer  R, Kubrin  CE.  Misogyny in rap music: a content analysis of prevalence and meanings.  Men Masculinities. 2009;12(1):3-29. doi:10.1177/1097184X08327696Google ScholarCrossref
14.
Charlesworth  A, Glantz  SA.  Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.  Pediatrics. 2005;116(6):1516-1528. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0141PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
15.
Lovato  C, Watts  A, Stead  LF.  Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(10):CD003439. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003439.pub2PubMedGoogle Scholar
16.
National Cancer Institute. NCI Tobacco Control Monograph Series 19: The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. Bethesda; 2008. http://cancercontrol.cancer. gov/BRP/tcrb/monographs/19/m19_complete.pdf. Accessed March 23, 2018.
17.
Pierce  JP, Gilpin  E, Burns  DM,  et al.  Does tobacco advertising target young people to start smoking? evidence from California.  JAMA. 1991;266(22):3154-3158. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470220070029PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
18.
Fischer  PM, Schwartz  MP, Richards  JW  Jr, Goldstein  AO, Rojas  TH.  Brand logo recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years: Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel.  JAMA. 1991;266(22):3145-3148. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470220061027PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
19.
DiFranza  JR, Richards  JW, Paulman  PM,  et al.  RJR Nabisco’s cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children.  JAMA. 1991;266(22):3149-3153. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470220065028PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
20.
Youth  PTUA, Adults  Y.  A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Smoking and Health: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2012, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK99237/.
21.
Choi  WS, Ahluwalia  JS, Harris  KJ, Okuyemi  K.  Progression to established smoking: the influence of tobacco marketing.  Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4):228-233. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00420-8PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
22.
Gilpin  EA, White  MM, Messer  K, Pierce  JP.  Receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions among young adolescents as a predictor of established smoking in young adulthood.  Am J Public Health. 2007;97(8):1489-1495. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.070359PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
23.
D’Amico  EJ, Rodriguez  A, Tucker  JS, Pedersen  ER, Shih  RA.  Planting the seed for marijuana use: changes in exposure to medical marijuana advertising and subsequent adolescent marijuana use, cognitions, and consequences over seven years.  Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;188:385-391. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.03.031PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
24.
Sargent  JD, Morgenstern  M, Isensee  B, Hanewinkel  R.  Movie smoking and urge to smoke among adult smokers.  Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(9):1042-1046. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp097PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
25.
Dal Cin  S, Gibson  B, Zanna  MP, Shumate  R, Fong  GT.  Smoking in movies, implicit associations of smoking with the self, and intentions to smoke.  Psychol Sci. 2007;18(7):559-563. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01939.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
26.
Distefan  JM, Pierce  JP, Gilpin  EA.  Do favorite movie stars influence adolescent smoking initiation?  Am J Public Health. 2004;94(7):1239-1244. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.7.1239PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
27.
Balbach  ED, Gasior  RJ, Barbeau  EMRJ.  RJ Reynolds’ targeting of African Americans: 1988-2000.  Am J Public Health. 2003;93(5):822-827. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.5.822PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
28.
Moreland-Russell  S, Harris  J, Snider  D, Walsh  H, Cyr  J, Barnoya  J.  Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.  Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(10):4571-4583. doi:10.3390/ijerph10104571PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
29.
Muggli  ME, Pollay  RW, Lew  R, Joseph  AM.  Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository.  Tob Control. 2002;11(3):201-209. doi:10.1136/tc.11.3.201PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
30.
Hafez  N, Ling  PM.  Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes.  Tob Control. 2006;15(5):359-366. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.014258PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
31.
Cruz  TB, Wright  LT, Crawford  G.  The menthol marketing mix: targeted promotions for focus communities in the United States.  Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(suppl 2):S147-S153. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq201PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
32.
Allem  J-P, Escobedo  P, Cruz  TB, Unger  JB.  Vape pen product placement in popular music videos.  Addict Behav. 2017;pii:S0306-4603(17)30398-2. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.027PubMedGoogle Scholar
33.
Richardson  A, Ganz  O, Vallone  D.  The cigar ambassador: how Snoop Dogg uses Instagram to promote tobacco use.  Tob Control. 2014;23(1):79-80. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051037PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
34.
Cavazos-Rehg  PA, Krauss  MJ, Sowles  SJ, Bierut  LJ.  Marijuana-related posts on Instagram.  Prev Sci. 2016;17(6):710-720. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0669-9PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
35.
Karrh  JA.  Brand placement: a review.  J Curr Issues Res Advert. 1998;20(2):31-49. doi:10.1080/10641734.1998.10505081Google ScholarCrossref
36.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Vaping popular among teens; opioid misuse at historic lows. https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2017/12/vaping-popular-among-teens-opioid-misuse-historic-lows. Accessed March 23, 2018.
37.
Hoffman  J. Marijuana and vaping are more popular than cigarettes among teenagers. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/14/health/teen-drug-smoking.html. Published December 14, 2017.
38.
Morean  ME, Kong  G, Camenga  DR, Cavallo  DA, Krishnan-Sarin  S.  High school students’ use of electronic cigarettes to vaporize cannabis.  Pediatrics. 2015;136(4):611-616. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1727PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
39.
Budney  AJ, Sargent  JD, Lee  DC.  Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?  Addiction. 2015;110(11):1699-1704. doi:10.1111/add.13036PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
40.
Monitoring the Future. Annual prevalence of use for various types of illicit drugs, 2015 among full-time college students 1 to 4 years beyond high school by gender. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pressreleases/15collegetb.pdf.
41.
Cork  K.  Toking, Smoking & Public Health: Lessons from Tobacco Control for Marijuana Regulation. St Paul, MN: Tobacco Control Legal Consortium; 2015.
42.
Burkhalter  JN, Curasi  CF, Thornton  CG, Donthu  N.  Music and its multitude of meanings: exploring what makes brand placements in music videos authentic.  J Brand Manag. 2017;24(2):140-160. doi:10.1057/s41262-017-0029-5Google ScholarCrossref
43.
Burkhalter  JN, Thornton  CG.  Advertising to the beat: an analysis of brand placements in hip-hop music videos.  J Mark Commun. 2014;20(5):366-382. doi:10.1080/13527266.2012.710643Google ScholarCrossref
44.
Cranwell  J, Murray  R, Lewis  S, Leonardi-Bee  J, Dockrell  M, Britton  J.  Adolescents’ exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos.  Addiction. 2015;110(4):703-711. doi:10.1111/add.12835PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
45.
Primack  BA, Nuzzo  E, Rice  KR, Sargent  JD.  Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.  Addiction. 2012;107(3):557-566. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03649.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
46.
Primack  BA, Dalton  MA, Carroll  MV, Agarwal  AA, Fine  MJ.  Content analysis of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs in popular music.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(2):169-175. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.27PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
47.
Kim  K, Paek  H-J, Lynn  J.  A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.  Health Commun. 2010;25(2):97-106. doi:10.1080/10410230903544415PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
48.
Bragg  MA, Miller  AN, Elizee  J, Dighe  S, Elbel  BD.  Popular music celebrity endorsements in food and nonalcoholic beverage marketing.  Pediatrics. 2016;138(1):e20153977. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3977PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
49.
Cranwell  J, Opazo-Breton  M, Britton  J.  Adult and adolescent exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in contemporary YouTube music videos in Great Britain: a population estimate.  J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(5):488-492. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-206402PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
50.
Herd  D.  Changes in the prevalence of alcohol use in rap song lyrics, 1979-97.  Addiction. 2005;100(9):1258-1269. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01192.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
51.
Sisario  B. In Beyoncé Deal, Pepsi focuses on collaboration. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/business/media/in-beyonce-deal-pepsi-focuses-on-collaboration.html. Published December 9, 2012.
52.
Elliott  S. McDonald’s campaign aims to regain the youth market. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/03/business/media-business-advertising-mcdonald-s-campaign-aims-regain-youth-market.html. Published September 3, 2003.
53.
Meiselman  J. Should music videos have to disclose product placement? Pitchfork. https://pitchfork.com/thepitch/should-music-videos-have-to-disclose-product-placement/.
54.
Westhoff  B. The big payback: why are rappers suddenly OK with shilling for big brands? The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jun/17/the-big-payback-rappers-and-advertising. Published June 17, 2015.
55.
Burgess  O. All souled out: an analysis of hip-hop endorsements. HipHopDX. http://hiphopdx.com/editorials/id.1650/title.all-souled-out-an-analysis-of-hip-hop-endorsements. Published February 4, 2011.
56.
Krishen  AS, Sirgy  MJ.  Identifying with the brand placed in music videos makes me like the brand.  J Curr Issues Res Advert. 2016;37(1):45-58. doi:10.1080/10641734.2015.1119768Google ScholarCrossref
57.
Federal Trade Commission. Full disclosure. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/business-blog/2014/09/full-disclosure. Published September 23, 2014.
58.
Cain  RM.  Embedded advertising on television: disclosure, deception, and free speech rights.  J Public Policy Mark. 2011;30(2):226-238. doi:10.1509/jppm.30.2.226Google ScholarCrossref
59.
Petty  RD, Andrews  JC.  Covert marketing unmasked: a legal and regulatory guide for practices that mask marketing messages.  J Public Policy Mark. 2008;27(1):7-18. doi:10.1509/jppm.27.1.7Google ScholarCrossref
60.
Bergkvist  L, Hjalmarson  H, Mägi  AW.  A new model of how celebrity endorsements work: attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects.  Int J Advert. 2016;35(2):171-184. doi:10.1080/02650487.2015.1024384Google ScholarCrossref
61.
Mead  EL, Rimal  RN, Ferrence  R, Cohen  JE.  Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: the example of tobacco.  Soc Sci Med. 2014;115(115):139-143. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.030PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
62.
Kerr  WC, Lui  C, Ye  Y.  Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984-2015 US National Alcohol Surveys.  Addiction. 2018;113(3):473-481. doi:10.1111/add.14031PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
63.
Pierce  JP, Sargent  JD, Portnoy  DB,  et al.  Association between receptivity to tobacco advertising and progression to tobacco use in youth and young adults in the PATH Study.  JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(5):444-451. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5756PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
64.
Suggett  P. How brands grab you by the subconscious. The Balance. https://www.thebalance.com/the-delicate-art-of-product-placement-advertising-38454. Accessed March 23, 2018.
65.
AdAge Encyclopedia of Advertising. Product placement. http://adage.com/article/adage-encyclopedia/product-placement/98832/. Accessed March 23, 2018.
66.
Redish  M, Voils  K.  False commercial speech and the First Amendment: understanding the implications of the equivalency principle.  William Mary Bill Rights J. 2017;25(3):765.Google Scholar
67.
US Food and Drug Administration. “Covered” tobacco products and roll-your-own/cigarette tobacco labeling and warning statement requirements: tobacco products. https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/Labeling/ucm524470.htm. Published January 8, 2018. Accessed March 23, 2018.
68.
Noar  SM, Hall  MG, Francis  DB, Ribisl  KM, Pepper  JK, Brewer  NT.  Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies.  Tob Control. 2016;25(3):341-354. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051978PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
69.
Noar  SM, Francis  DB, Bridges  C, Sontag  JM, Ribisl  KM, Brewer  NT.  The impact of strengthening cigarette pack warnings: systematic review of longitudinal observational studies.  Soc Sci Med. 2016;164(164):118-129. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.06.011PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
70.
Hammond  D.  Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.  Tob Control. 2011;20(5):327-337. doi:10.1136/tc.2010.037630PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
72.
Walker  MW, Navarro  MA, Hoffman  L, Wagner  DE, Stalgaitis  CA, Jordan  JW.  The Hip Hop peer crowd: An opportunity for intervention to reduce tobacco use among at-risk youth.  Addict Behav. 2018;82:28-34. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.014PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
73.
Jordan  JW, Stalgaitis  CA, Charles  J, Madden  PA, Radhakrishnan  AG, Saggese  D.  Peer crowd identification and adolescent health behaviors: results from a statewide representative study.  Health Educ Behav. 2018;1090198118759148. doi:10.1177/1090198118759148PubMedGoogle Scholar
74.
Moran  MB, Sussman  S.  Translating the link between social identity and health behavior into effective health communication strategies: An experimental application using antismoking advertisements.  Health Commun. 2014;29(10):1057-1066. doi:10.1080/10410236.2013.832830PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
75.
Baig  SA, Pepper  JK, Morgan  JC, Brewer  NT.  Social identity and support for counteracting tobacco company marketing that targets vulnerable populations.  Soc Sci Med. 2017;182:136-141. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.03.052PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
76.
Massenburg-Smith  M, McCollum  M. Broccoli. 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K44j-sb1SRY. Accessed March 21, 2018.
77.
Woods  D. Now & Later. 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACPd7HSZkc0. Accessed March 21, 2018.
78.
Google. Advertising policies help: dangerous products or services. https://support.google.com/adwordspolicy/answer/6014299?hl=en. Accessed March 23, 2018.
79.
Statista. Number of YouTube users in the United States from 2014 to 2019 (in millions). https://www.statista.com/statistics/469152/number-youtube-viewers-united-states/. Accessed June 18, 2018.
80.
Statista. Number of YouTube users worldwide from 2016 to 2021 (in billions). https://www.statista.com/statistics/805656/number-youtube-viewers-worldwide/. Accessed June 18, 2018.
81.
Freeman  B, Chapman  S.  British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.  Tob Control. 2010;19(3):e1-e9. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.032847PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
82.
Video not available in my country - YouTube Help. https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/92571?hl=en. Accessed June 15, 2018.
83.
Bushman  BJ, Cantor  J.  Media ratings for violence and sex. Implications for policymakers and parents.  Am Psychol. 2003;58(2):130-141. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.58.2.130PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
84.
Gabrielli  J, Traore  A, Stoolmiller  M, Bergamini  E, Sargent  JD.  Industry television ratings for violence, sex, and substance use.  Pediatrics. 2016;138(3):e20160487. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-0487PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
85.
Lee  K, Fooks  G, Wander  N, Fang  J.  Smoke rings: towards a comprehensive tobacco free policy for the Olympic Games.  PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0130091. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130091PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
86.
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. NASCAR choice of non-tobacco sponsor is a victory for kids, health and auto cacing. https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/id_0658. Published June 6, 2017.
Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words
    Original Investigation
    December 2018

    Combustible and Electronic Tobacco and Marijuana Products in Hip-Hop Music Videos, 2013-2017

    Author Affiliations
    • 1The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire
    • 2Department of Public Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland
    • 3Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire
    JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(12):1608-1615. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4488
    Key Points

    Question  How pervasive is combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana use in popular hip-hop music videos from 2013 to 2017?

    Findings  In this content analysis of 796 hip-hop music videos from 2013 to 2017, the appearance of combustible or electronic product use or exhaled smoke or vapor ranged from 40.2% to 50.7%. The appearance of branded combustible and electronic products increased over time.

    Meaning  The frequent use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products in popular hip-hop music videos, the genre’s broad appeal, and the use of branded products by prominent artists may contribute to a growing public health concern.

    Abstract

    Importance  Hip-hop is the leading music genre in the United States and its fan base includes a large proportion of adolescents and young adults of all racial and ethnic groups, particularly minorities. The appearance of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products, especially brand placement and use by popular and influential artists, may increase the risk of tobacco and marijuana use and decrease perceptions of harm.

    Objective  To assess the prevalence of the appearance and use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products, including brand placement, in leading hip-hop songs.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  Analysis of top 50 songs from 2013 to 2017 of Billboard magazine’s weekly Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs with videos that included the appearance or use of combustible tobacco and marijuana products (manufactured cigarettes, cigars, hookah or waterpipe, pipe, hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana products, marijuana buds); appearance of exhaled smoke or vapor without an identifiable source product; appearance or use of electronic tobacco and marijuana products (eg, electronic cigarettes); tobacco or marijuana brand placement; appearance or use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana by main or featured artist. Data were collected from December 6, 2017, to June 4, 2018.

    Main Outcomes and Measures  Prevalence of (1) appearance or use of combustible tobacco and marijuana products, (2) appearance of smoke or vapor, (3) appearance or use of electronic tobacco and marijuana products, (4) tobacco or marijuana brand placement, and (5) appearance or use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana by main or featured artist. Probability of appearance or use of combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products by quartile of viewership of videos.

    Results  The proportion of leading hip-hop videos containing combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor ranged from 40.2% (76 of 189) in 2015, to 50.7% (102 of 201) in 2016. For each year, the leading category of combustible use was hand-rolled products. The appearance of branded products increased from 0% in 2013 (0 of 82) to 9.9% in 2017 (10 of 101) for combustible products, and from 25.0% in 2013 (3 of 12) to 87.5% in 2017 (14 of 16) for electronic products. The prevalence of combustible or electronic product use or exhaled smoke or vapor increased by quartile of total number of views: 41.9% (8700 to 19 million views) among songs in the first quartile of viewership and 49.7% among songs in the fourth quartile of viewership (112 million to 4 billion views).

    Conclusions and Relevance  Combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana use frequently occurred in popular hip-hop music videos. The genre’s broad appeal, use of branded products by influential artists, and rise of electronic product and marijuana use may contribute to a growing public health concern of tobacco and marijuana use.

    Introduction

    In 2017, hip-hop (which includes rap) and rhythm and blues (R&B) surpassed rock and pop as the leading music genre in the United States.1 With roots in African American and Latino cultures, hip-hop draws fans who are young racial and ethnic minorities, although the hip-hop fan base now transcends age group, and race/ethnicity.2-4 The contemporary hip-hop fan base is 14% adolescent (age ≤17 years), 49% young adult (age 18-34 years), and 37% older adult (age ≥35 years); 43% non-Hispanic white individuals, 24% non-Hispanic black individuals, and 28% Hispanic individuals; and 36% of listeners came from households with an annual income greater than or equal to $80 000.5 Hip-hop has made many positive contributions to social change, and hip-hop artists exert substantial behavior modeling on their fans owing to their prominence and the social, cultural, and political commentary in their music (eg, police violence against minorities, substance abuse, and suicide prevention).6-11 However, this influence may not always be positive, as hip-hop music videos often include misogyny, violence, and use of tobacco and marijuana products.12,13 The depictions of tobacco and marijuana use may increase the appeal of and desire to experiment with and continue use of these products, while decreasing perceptions of risk and harm among viewers.14-24 Depictions of tobacco product use by prominent figures, such as popular hip-hop artists, may affect viewers’ implicit associations with smoking and increase their likelihood of smoking.25,26

    The tobacco industry has long targeted minority populations as consumers through promotional marketing campaigns of specific cigarette brands and sponsorship of hip-hop music events and concerts.20,27-31 Although the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) prohibits brand-name sponsorship of music events, the tobacco industry continues to target the hip-hop community via product placement in online music content (eg, official music video on YouTube).32-35 Marketing through online music content remains largely unregulated. This gap in regulation may be associated with the recent rise of e-cigarette use, which now surpasses traditional cigarette smoking among US youths.36,37 Furthermore, a substantial portion of youth who use e-cigarettes do so to vaporize marijuana, which has also surpassed traditional cigarette smoking among US youths.38-40 Limiting advertising and marketing of tobacco and marijuana products may help reduce interest among young, vulnerable populations; however, the extent to which these products appear in popular music culture remains unknown to date.41

    To assess this knowledge gap, we conducted an analysis of leading contemporary hip-hop music videos over the 5 years from 2013 to 2017 to ascertain the extent to which combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana use appeared. Moreover, we determined how often these appearances portrayed specific brands, and if combustible or electronic tobacco and marijuana use more commonly appeared in prominent and popular songs.

    Methods
    Data

    This study considered all hip-hop songs listed on Billboard magazine’s weekly Hot R&B/Hip Hop Songs list (a list of the top 50 songs, hereafter referred to as top 50 list) between 2013 and 2017. Hereafter, hip-hop (which includes rap) and R&B are referred to collectively as hip-hop. Billboard uses Nielsen Music data tracking services for its rankings; Nielsen ranking algorithms include digital download sales, physical sales, radio airplay, online radio streaming, online audio streaming, and YouTube views. The Dartmouth College Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects deemed this study exempt from institutional review board review, as the regulatory definition of human subjects research (45 CFR 46.102[f]) did not apply.

    Coding Procedure and Number of Views

    YouTube, Tidal (a subscription-based music streaming service to which some artists release music videos exclusively), iTunes, Vimeo (a video-sharing website), and artists’ websites were searched for corresponding music videos of all top 50 list songs. Videos described as visualizers (ie, simplified animations or visual images accompanying the audio) and visual albums (ie, extended videos that encapsulate all music videos for an entire album, often with additional footage between each song’s audio) were included in analysis.

    For each video, 1 author (K.E.K.) and 1 research assistant coded the appearance or use of combustible tobacco or marijuana products (hereafter referred to as combustible use). The interrater agreement among the 2 coders, measured by Cohen κ, was 85.6%. When the coders disagreed on combustible use, they rewatched the video and discussed to reach consensus. Categories of these products included manufactured cigarettes (hereafter referred to as cigarettes), cigars, pipes, hookahs or waterpipes, hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana products (including hand-rolled cigarettes, spliffs [mixture of tobacco and marijuana], blunts [hollowed out cigar, tobacco-leaf wrapper then filled with marijuana], and joints [hand-rolled marijuana]; hereafter referred to as hand-rolled products), and marijuana buds. Next, appearance of exhaled smoke or vapor without an identifiable source product (hereafter referred to as smoke or vapor) was coded. Appearance or use of electronic tobacco or marijuana products (hereafter referred to as electronic use), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), electronic hookahs (e-hookahs), vaporizers (including herbal vaporizers for vaping cannabis), and any other electronic nicotine delivery system was also coded. The interrater agreement among the 2 coders, measured by Cohen κ, was 81.8%; when coders disagreed on electronic use, they rewatched the video and discussed to reach consensus. Purchase of cigarettes by musical artists or other people in the videos was coded as combustible use, as were animations portraying combustible use. Appearance of specific combustible product brands (combustible brand placement) and electronic product brands (electronic brand placement) was also coded. Both combustible and electronic use were coded as use by a main or featured musical artist, or by other people in the video. As a measure of prominence and reach, the total number of views on YouTube (as of May 31, 2018) was collected for each song with an accompanying music video.

    Analytic Procedure

    First, annual prevalence of combustible use (overall and by product category), electronic use, and smoke or vapor in music videos was calculated. The annual prevalence equaled the number of videos with combustible use divided by the total number of videos in that year. Second, annual proportion of combustible and electronic use that was also brand placement was calculated. Third, annual proportion of combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor by the main or featured musical artist was calculated. Finally, the total number of views for songs with accompanying music videos was categorized into quartiles. The proportion of these songs containing combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor was calculated by quartile of total number of views.

    No sampling uncertainty was reported in the outcomes because the calculations used the entire population of songs with identifiable corresponding music videos in the top 50 lists between 2013 and 2017. Songs that appeared in top 50 lists across multiple years (eg, the highly popular song “Hotline Bling” by Drake remained among the top 10 songs between September 2015 and April 2016) were included in the annual prevalence calculations of each of those years. Billboard publishes its weekly top 50 list every Saturday; weekly top 50 lists that span 2 calendar years are attributed to the calendar year in which the list was published. Songs released prior to 2012 that appeared on the weekly top 50 list at any point between 2013 and 2017 were excluded from analysis.

    Results

    Between 2013 and 2017, 1250 unique songs appeared on the Billboard top 50 list; 796 of which had accompanying music videos (Figure 1). In 2013, of 191 songs, 46.6% (89) with accompanying music videos contained combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor: 24.1% (46) contained combustible use only; 8.9% (17) contained smoke or vapor only; 7.3% (14) contained combustible use and smoke or vapor; 3.7% (7) contained electronic use only; 0.5% (1) contained combustible use, electronic use, and smoke or vapor; and 1.0% (2) contained combustible and electronic use (Figure 2). The proportion of songs with accompanying music videos that contained combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor equaled 44.2% in 2014 (87 of 197), 40.2% in 2015 (76 of 189), 50.7% in 2016 (102 of 201), and 47.1% in 2017 (106 of 225). Overall, these songs have been viewed 39.5 billion times.

    For each year, the leading category of combustible use was hand-rolled products. In 2017, 55 of the 225 songs (24.4%) with accompanying music videos contained hand-rolled products: 16 (7.1%) hand-rolled products only; 14 (6.2%) hand-rolled products and other combustible products; 12 (5.3%) hand-rolled products and smoke or vapor; 8 (3.6%) hand-rolled products, smoke or vapor, and other combustible products; 3 (1.3%) hand-rolled products and electronic products; and 2 (0.9%) hand-rolled products, smoke or vapor, and electronic products. Compared with hand-rolled products, cigarette use was less common in videos, either exclusively or in combination with other combustible products, electronic products, or smoke or vapor. In 2017, 18 songs (8.0%) with accompanying music videos contained cigarettes. The prevalence of smoke or vapor in songs with accompanying music videos, either exclusively or in combination with combustible or electronic use, increased from 17.8% in 2013 (34 of 191) to 21.8% in 2017 (49 of 225). Finally, electronic use in songs with accompanying music videos, either exclusively or in combination with combustible use or smoke or vapor, increased from 6.3% (12 of 191) in 2013 to 7.1% (16 of 225) in 2017.

    Among songs with accompanying music videos containing combustible use, brand placement increased from 0% in 2013 (0 of 82 songs) to 9.9% in 2017 (10 of 101 songs) (Figure 3). Among songs with accompanying music videos containing electronic use, brand placement increased from 25.0% in 2013 (3 of 12 songs) to 87.5% in 2017 (14 of 16 songs). Combustible brand placement included 9 brands: 3 cigar brands (JM's Dominican, Pom, Rich), 2 hookah brands (Habibiz, Khalil Mamoon), 2 rolling paper brands for hand-rolled products (RAW, Wiz Khalifa), and 2 marijuana brands (Caviar Gold, Weedmaps). Electronic brand placement consisted of 9 brands: BLOW, Citizen, Dr Dabber, Eonsmoke, Fantasia, KandyPen, MigVapor, Puff King, and Square E-Hookah. None of the videos with combustible or electronic brand placement contained nicotine addictiveness warning statements.

    Main or featured artists exclusively used combustible or electronic products or exhaled smoke or vapor in 33.8% (123 of 364) of the songs with accompanying music videos containing combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor (Figure 4). Combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor by main or featured artists along with other individuals occurred in another 25.1% of these songs (91 of 364).

    The proportion of songs with accompanying music videos containing combustible use, electronic use, or smoke or vapor increased with the popularity of these songs (Figure 5). The proportion equaled 41.9% among songs in the first quartile of viewership (8700 to 19 million views) and increased to 49.7% among songs in the fourth quartile of viewership (112 million to 4 billion views). One such song in the highest quartile, “I’m The One” by DJ Khaled featuring Justin Bieber, Quavo, Chance The Rapper and Lil Wayne, contained both combustible and electronic use, as well as electronic brand placement (KandyPen); the associated music video had been viewed over 1 billion times on YouTube as of June 2018. Similarly, the proportion of songs with accompanying music videos containing branded combustible or electronic placement equaled 3.5% among songs in the first quartile of viewership and increased to 8.5% among songs in the fourth quartile of viewership (eFigure in the Supplement).

    Discussion

    In this analysis of leading hip-hop songs during the 5 years from 2013 to 2017, we report 4 central findings. First, the proportion of leading hip-hop videos containing combustible or electronic use or smoke or vapor ranged from 40.2% and 50.7% between 2013 and 2017, which corresponds to over 39 billion views to date. The most common categories of use were hand-rolled products and smoke or vapor. Second, an increasingly larger share of combustible and electronic use was brand placement. Third, nearly 60% of combustible use and 30% of electronic use were by main or featured musical artists. Fourth, the prevalence of combustible or electronic use rose with the popularity of songs.

    Our study contributes to a growing body of research on regulated substances in popular music.12,42-47 DuRant et al12 found the prevalence of smoking in rap music videos equaled 30% and smoking in R&B music videos equaled 11% in 1997. Our study concludes prevalence is now 44% in 2017 for the overall hip-hop music genre. Previous studies concluded popular music frequently contained lyrical reference to and visual imagery of alcohol, tobacco, and junk food.44-50 This imagery often constituted product placement.48,51-56

    Although no musical artists disclosed payment for brand placement, brand placement may constitute paid endorsement. Main or featured hip-hop artists used combustible and electronic products more frequently than did other people in their videos, and the prevalence of brand placement appeared to increase with greater song and artist popularity. Paid endorsement resulting from brand placement requires clear and conspicuous disclosure in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission Act when viewers would otherwise not know an artist had been paid to endorse a specific product.57 Such a disclosure may lead viewers to perceive embedded advertising more skeptically and be less likely to believe combustible and electronic product use is concomitant with hip-hop culture.58,59 These disclosures may also lead viewers to perceive combustible or electronic products more negatively because viewers would know the artist endorsed the product for monetary reasons and not exclusively because of its quality.60

    Combustible and electronic use by prominent artists and overt product placement may pose public health harm to adolescents and young adults, especially among those who identify with hip-hop subculture. Hip-hop videos may be a substantial source of exposure to tobacco use, which may increase the risk of cigarette smoking initiation and sustained cigarette smoking14-16,20 because of their high level of viewership. When main or featured musical artists include combustible use in their videos, viewers may develop stronger implicit associations between combustible use and themselves.25 These appearances could also contribute to perceptions that tobacco use is normative in hip-hop culture.61 The appearances of hand-rolled products (many of which likely contain marijuana) in hip-hop videos may contribute to or result from growing societal acceptance of marijuana.62 The exposure to marijuana use in music videos could operate in the same way as did exposure to medical marijuana advertising, which D’Amico et al23 found increased marijuana use in a longitudinal study of youths. Finally, combustible or electronic brand placement may also affect youth tobacco use behavior, as such exposure may be associated with the development of favorable attitudes toward tobacco use, increased susceptibility to use, and increased initiation in adolescents.17-19,63

    Federal regulation of combustible or electronic use in music videos depends, in part, on whether the appearance and use of these products is truly artistic and creative expression or actually paid product placement.42,64,65 Under the First Amendment, the former is free speech and afforded full protection, while the latter is commercial speech and may be afforded less than full protection.66 Additionally, brand placement in hip-hop music videos constitutes advertising and these videos will soon require nicotine addictiveness warning statements as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation.67 However, to our knowledge, none of the music videos with combustible or electronic brand placement currently contain such warning statements, and such warning statements could prove beneficial. Prominent text-only and pictorial warning statements help promote smoking cessation in adults and prevent smoking initiation in youths.68-70

    In 2015, the FDA launched Fresh Empire, a public education campaign aimed at youths who identify with the hip-hop peer crowd, featuring hip-hop artists and aspirational messages to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle.71 The campaign focuses on this population because its rate of tobacco use is higher than other peer crowds.72,73 The use of concordant peer crowds (ie, the hip-hop peer crowd and hip-hop youths) to promote antitobacco messages may increase the effectiveness of the segmented campaign.74,75 However, some prominent hip-hop artists featured by Fresh Empire included combustible use in their own music videos.76,77 Thus, the mixed messages from these artists on tobacco use may compromise the message of the campaign.

    Our study found that none of the brands shown in the hip-hop music videos were brands of participating manufacturers of the 1998 MSA, likely because of the ban on nontobacco brand names. This ban prohibits participating manufacturers from paying an entertainment group or individual celebrity to use the brand name of a tobacco product. In contrast, our study found that all combustible tobacco brands featured in hip-hop music videos were from non-MSA–participating manufacturers. Additionally, none of the electronic product brands shown in hip-hop music videos were brands of tobacco companies that participate in the MSA (eg, Altria’s MarkTen brand electronic cigarette). Nonparticipating manufacturers are not subject to the marketing restrictions of the MSA; however, the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act granted the FDA regulatory authority over tobacco marketing.

    Beyond federal and state regulation, the music industry and social networking sites could reduce combustible and electronic use in hip-hop music videos. Advertisements of tobacco products are expressly prohibited by Google, the parent company of YouTube.78 Thus, YouTube could prohibit postings of music videos with product placement in accordance with Google’s advertising policies. Additionally, approximately 88% of YouTube users live in countries other than the United States, the vast majority of which ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).79,80 Because of the international reach of YouTube, music videos with combustible or electronic use, especially brand placement, could violate Article 13 of the WHO FCTC, which bans all tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship.81 YouTube and other video-sharing websites have the ability to block content in different countries and, therefore, prevent videos containing tobacco advertising from becoming available in countries that have ratified the FCTC.82

    Previous attempts at self-regulation by the music industry have proved ineffective. The Recording Industry Association of America’s parental advisory label may serve to entice, rather than detract, young listeners and viewers to music portraying violence, sex, and substance use.83,84 However, the music industry could follow the practice of several sports-governing bodies to self-regulate on tobacco marketing. The International Olympic Committee and the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing have successfully divested from tobacco industry sponsorship and product placement, thereby reducing exposure of tobacco products for youth viewers.85,86

    Limitations

    We note several limitations. First, because of the visual ambiguity of hand-rolled products, we could not distinguish among those filled with tobacco, marijuana, or a mixture of the two. Second, 36.3% of leading hip-hop songs between 2013 and 2017 did not have accompanying music videos. Only 2 of the 20 songs in the album “Views” by the chart-topping artist Drake have associated music videos, even though 19 of these 20 songs made the top 50 list. Third, we could not assess the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics or country of residence of the individuals who watched hip-hop music videos. If viewership patterns follow listenership patterns, the former spans age groups, race and ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Conclusions

    Leading hip-hop music videos represent a considerable source of exposure to tobacco and marijuana use. The confluence of hip-hop’s broad appeal, use of branded products by influential artists, and growing interest in electronic products and marijuana all contribute to the important public health concern of tobacco and marijuana use. Music videos offer largely unregulated opportunities for exposure to, and brand advertising of, combustible and electronic tobacco and marijuana products. Future regulation that directly addresses the often co-occurring appearance and marketing of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic products in music videos would limit exposure to their use and could reduce the burden of tobacco and marijuana use.

    Back to top
    Article Information

    Corresponding Author: Kristin E. Knutzen, MPH, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, One Medical Center Dr, Lebanon, NH 03756 (kristin.e.knutzen@dartmouth.edu).

    Published Online: October 15, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4488

    Author Contributions: Dr Soneji and Ms Knutzen had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

    Concept and design: All authors.

    Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors.

    Drafting of the manuscript: Knutzen, Soneji.

    Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

    Statistical analysis: Knutzen, Soneji.

    Administrative, technical, or material support: Soneji.

    Supervision: Soneji.

    Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

    Funding/Support: Dr Moran’s effort is supported by NIDA and FDA Center for Tobacco Products grant 5K01DA037903.

    Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

    Disclaimer: The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or the FDA.

    Additional Contributions: We thank Sreevaishali Rajendran and Niki Cozzolino for their assistance in coding data. They received compensation.

    References
    1.
    Hip-hop and R&B surpass rock as biggest US music genre. Reuters. January 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-music-2017/hip-hop-and-rb-surpass-rock-as-biggest-u-s-music-genre-idUSKBN1ET258. Accessed March 23, 2018.
    2.
    Rose  T.  Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press; 1994.
    3.
    Morgan  M, Bennett  D.  Hip-hop & the global imprint of a Black cultural form.  Daedalus. 2011;140(2):176-196. doi:10.1162/DAED_a_00086Google ScholarCrossref
    4.
    Kitwana  B.  Why White Kids Love Hip Hop: Wankstas, Wiggers, Wannabes, and the New Reality of Race in America. New York, NY: Basic Civitas Books; 2006.
    5.
    Music  Nielsen. Audience Insights, Hip-Hop/Rap Fans: An Uncommon Perspective of The Hip-Hop/Rap Music Fan.; 2017.
    6.
    Hall  R, Caracciolo  A, Robinson  K. 1-800-273-8255. 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kb24RrHIbFk. Accessed March 21, 2018.
    7.
    Jackson  K, Asghedom  E. FDT. 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WkZ5e94QnWk. Accessed March 21, 2018.
    8.
    Anderson  S, Felton  J. Light. 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhxm35g3Qa8. Accessed March 21, 2018.
    9.
    Haggerty  B, Lewis  R. Fences. Otherside. 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvDQy53eldY. Accessed March 21, 2018.
    10.
    Dyson  ME. The Culture of Hip-Hop. In: Neal  MA, Forman  M, eds.  That’s the Joint!: The Hip-Hop Studies Reader. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge; 2011:chap 7.
    11.
    Dyson  ME.  Jay-Z, Nas. Know What I Mean?: Reflections on Hip-Hop. New York, NY: Basic Civitas Books; 2010.
    12.
    DuRant  RH, Rome  ES, Rich  M, Allred  E, Emans  SJ, Woods  ER.  Tobacco and alcohol use behaviors portrayed in music videos: a content analysis.  Am J Public Health. 1997;87(7):1131-1135. doi:10.2105/AJPH.87.7.1131PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    13.
    Weitzer  R, Kubrin  CE.  Misogyny in rap music: a content analysis of prevalence and meanings.  Men Masculinities. 2009;12(1):3-29. doi:10.1177/1097184X08327696Google ScholarCrossref
    14.
    Charlesworth  A, Glantz  SA.  Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.  Pediatrics. 2005;116(6):1516-1528. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0141PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    15.
    Lovato  C, Watts  A, Stead  LF.  Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(10):CD003439. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003439.pub2PubMedGoogle Scholar
    16.
    National Cancer Institute. NCI Tobacco Control Monograph Series 19: The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. Bethesda; 2008. http://cancercontrol.cancer. gov/BRP/tcrb/monographs/19/m19_complete.pdf. Accessed March 23, 2018.
    17.
    Pierce  JP, Gilpin  E, Burns  DM,  et al.  Does tobacco advertising target young people to start smoking? evidence from California.  JAMA. 1991;266(22):3154-3158. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470220070029PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    18.
    Fischer  PM, Schwartz  MP, Richards  JW  Jr, Goldstein  AO, Rojas  TH.  Brand logo recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years: Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel.  JAMA. 1991;266(22):3145-3148. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470220061027PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    19.
    DiFranza  JR, Richards  JW, Paulman  PM,  et al.  RJR Nabisco’s cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children.  JAMA. 1991;266(22):3149-3153. doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470220065028PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    20.
    Youth  PTUA, Adults  Y.  A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Smoking and Health: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2012, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK99237/.
    21.
    Choi  WS, Ahluwalia  JS, Harris  KJ, Okuyemi  K.  Progression to established smoking: the influence of tobacco marketing.  Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4):228-233. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00420-8PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    22.
    Gilpin  EA, White  MM, Messer  K, Pierce  JP.  Receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions among young adolescents as a predictor of established smoking in young adulthood.  Am J Public Health. 2007;97(8):1489-1495. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.070359PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    23.
    D’Amico  EJ, Rodriguez  A, Tucker  JS, Pedersen  ER, Shih  RA.  Planting the seed for marijuana use: changes in exposure to medical marijuana advertising and subsequent adolescent marijuana use, cognitions, and consequences over seven years.  Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;188:385-391. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.03.031PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    24.
    Sargent  JD, Morgenstern  M, Isensee  B, Hanewinkel  R.  Movie smoking and urge to smoke among adult smokers.  Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(9):1042-1046. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp097PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    25.
    Dal Cin  S, Gibson  B, Zanna  MP, Shumate  R, Fong  GT.  Smoking in movies, implicit associations of smoking with the self, and intentions to smoke.  Psychol Sci. 2007;18(7):559-563. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01939.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    26.
    Distefan  JM, Pierce  JP, Gilpin  EA.  Do favorite movie stars influence adolescent smoking initiation?  Am J Public Health. 2004;94(7):1239-1244. doi:10.2105/AJPH.94.7.1239PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    27.
    Balbach  ED, Gasior  RJ, Barbeau  EMRJ.  RJ Reynolds’ targeting of African Americans: 1988-2000.  Am J Public Health. 2003;93(5):822-827. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.5.822PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    28.
    Moreland-Russell  S, Harris  J, Snider  D, Walsh  H, Cyr  J, Barnoya  J.  Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.  Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(10):4571-4583. doi:10.3390/ijerph10104571PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    29.
    Muggli  ME, Pollay  RW, Lew  R, Joseph  AM.  Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository.  Tob Control. 2002;11(3):201-209. doi:10.1136/tc.11.3.201PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    30.
    Hafez  N, Ling  PM.  Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes.  Tob Control. 2006;15(5):359-366. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.014258PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    31.
    Cruz  TB, Wright  LT, Crawford  G.  The menthol marketing mix: targeted promotions for focus communities in the United States.  Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(suppl 2):S147-S153. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntq201PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    32.
    Allem  J-P, Escobedo  P, Cruz  TB, Unger  JB.  Vape pen product placement in popular music videos.  Addict Behav. 2017;pii:S0306-4603(17)30398-2. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.027PubMedGoogle Scholar
    33.
    Richardson  A, Ganz  O, Vallone  D.  The cigar ambassador: how Snoop Dogg uses Instagram to promote tobacco use.  Tob Control. 2014;23(1):79-80. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051037PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    34.
    Cavazos-Rehg  PA, Krauss  MJ, Sowles  SJ, Bierut  LJ.  Marijuana-related posts on Instagram.  Prev Sci. 2016;17(6):710-720. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0669-9PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    35.
    Karrh  JA.  Brand placement: a review.  J Curr Issues Res Advert. 1998;20(2):31-49. doi:10.1080/10641734.1998.10505081Google ScholarCrossref
    36.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Vaping popular among teens; opioid misuse at historic lows. https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2017/12/vaping-popular-among-teens-opioid-misuse-historic-lows. Accessed March 23, 2018.
    37.
    Hoffman  J. Marijuana and vaping are more popular than cigarettes among teenagers. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/14/health/teen-drug-smoking.html. Published December 14, 2017.
    38.
    Morean  ME, Kong  G, Camenga  DR, Cavallo  DA, Krishnan-Sarin  S.  High school students’ use of electronic cigarettes to vaporize cannabis.  Pediatrics. 2015;136(4):611-616. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-1727PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    39.
    Budney  AJ, Sargent  JD, Lee  DC.  Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?  Addiction. 2015;110(11):1699-1704. doi:10.1111/add.13036PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    40.
    Monitoring the Future. Annual prevalence of use for various types of illicit drugs, 2015 among full-time college students 1 to 4 years beyond high school by gender. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pressreleases/15collegetb.pdf.
    41.
    Cork  K.  Toking, Smoking & Public Health: Lessons from Tobacco Control for Marijuana Regulation. St Paul, MN: Tobacco Control Legal Consortium; 2015.
    42.
    Burkhalter  JN, Curasi  CF, Thornton  CG, Donthu  N.  Music and its multitude of meanings: exploring what makes brand placements in music videos authentic.  J Brand Manag. 2017;24(2):140-160. doi:10.1057/s41262-017-0029-5Google ScholarCrossref
    43.
    Burkhalter  JN, Thornton  CG.  Advertising to the beat: an analysis of brand placements in hip-hop music videos.  J Mark Commun. 2014;20(5):366-382. doi:10.1080/13527266.2012.710643Google ScholarCrossref
    44.
    Cranwell  J, Murray  R, Lewis  S, Leonardi-Bee  J, Dockrell  M, Britton  J.  Adolescents’ exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos.  Addiction. 2015;110(4):703-711. doi:10.1111/add.12835PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    45.
    Primack  BA, Nuzzo  E, Rice  KR, Sargent  JD.  Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.  Addiction. 2012;107(3):557-566. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03649.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    46.
    Primack  BA, Dalton  MA, Carroll  MV, Agarwal  AA, Fine  MJ.  Content analysis of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs in popular music.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(2):169-175. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.27PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    47.
    Kim  K, Paek  H-J, Lynn  J.  A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.  Health Commun. 2010;25(2):97-106. doi:10.1080/10410230903544415PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    48.
    Bragg  MA, Miller  AN, Elizee  J, Dighe  S, Elbel  BD.  Popular music celebrity endorsements in food and nonalcoholic beverage marketing.  Pediatrics. 2016;138(1):e20153977. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-3977PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    49.
    Cranwell  J, Opazo-Breton  M, Britton  J.  Adult and adolescent exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in contemporary YouTube music videos in Great Britain: a population estimate.  J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(5):488-492. doi:10.1136/jech-2015-206402PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    50.
    Herd  D.  Changes in the prevalence of alcohol use in rap song lyrics, 1979-97.  Addiction. 2005;100(9):1258-1269. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01192.xPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    51.
    Sisario  B. In Beyoncé Deal, Pepsi focuses on collaboration. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/business/media/in-beyonce-deal-pepsi-focuses-on-collaboration.html. Published December 9, 2012.
    52.
    Elliott  S. McDonald’s campaign aims to regain the youth market. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/03/business/media-business-advertising-mcdonald-s-campaign-aims-regain-youth-market.html. Published September 3, 2003.
    53.
    Meiselman  J. Should music videos have to disclose product placement? Pitchfork. https://pitchfork.com/thepitch/should-music-videos-have-to-disclose-product-placement/.
    54.
    Westhoff  B. The big payback: why are rappers suddenly OK with shilling for big brands? The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/music/2015/jun/17/the-big-payback-rappers-and-advertising. Published June 17, 2015.
    55.
    Burgess  O. All souled out: an analysis of hip-hop endorsements. HipHopDX. http://hiphopdx.com/editorials/id.1650/title.all-souled-out-an-analysis-of-hip-hop-endorsements. Published February 4, 2011.
    56.
    Krishen  AS, Sirgy  MJ.  Identifying with the brand placed in music videos makes me like the brand.  J Curr Issues Res Advert. 2016;37(1):45-58. doi:10.1080/10641734.2015.1119768Google ScholarCrossref
    57.
    Federal Trade Commission. Full disclosure. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/business-blog/2014/09/full-disclosure. Published September 23, 2014.
    58.
    Cain  RM.  Embedded advertising on television: disclosure, deception, and free speech rights.  J Public Policy Mark. 2011;30(2):226-238. doi:10.1509/jppm.30.2.226Google ScholarCrossref
    59.
    Petty  RD, Andrews  JC.  Covert marketing unmasked: a legal and regulatory guide for practices that mask marketing messages.  J Public Policy Mark. 2008;27(1):7-18. doi:10.1509/jppm.27.1.7Google ScholarCrossref
    60.
    Bergkvist  L, Hjalmarson  H, Mägi  AW.  A new model of how celebrity endorsements work: attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects.  Int J Advert. 2016;35(2):171-184. doi:10.1080/02650487.2015.1024384Google ScholarCrossref
    61.
    Mead  EL, Rimal  RN, Ferrence  R, Cohen  JE.  Understanding the sources of normative influence on behavior: the example of tobacco.  Soc Sci Med. 2014;115(115):139-143. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.030PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    62.
    Kerr  WC, Lui  C, Ye  Y.  Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984-2015 US National Alcohol Surveys.  Addiction. 2018;113(3):473-481. doi:10.1111/add.14031PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    63.
    Pierce  JP, Sargent  JD, Portnoy  DB,  et al.  Association between receptivity to tobacco advertising and progression to tobacco use in youth and young adults in the PATH Study.  JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(5):444-451. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5756PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    64.
    Suggett  P. How brands grab you by the subconscious. The Balance. https://www.thebalance.com/the-delicate-art-of-product-placement-advertising-38454. Accessed March 23, 2018.
    65.
    AdAge Encyclopedia of Advertising. Product placement. http://adage.com/article/adage-encyclopedia/product-placement/98832/. Accessed March 23, 2018.
    66.
    Redish  M, Voils  K.  False commercial speech and the First Amendment: understanding the implications of the equivalency principle.  William Mary Bill Rights J. 2017;25(3):765.Google Scholar
    67.
    US Food and Drug Administration. “Covered” tobacco products and roll-your-own/cigarette tobacco labeling and warning statement requirements: tobacco products. https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/Labeling/ucm524470.htm. Published January 8, 2018. Accessed March 23, 2018.
    68.
    Noar  SM, Hall  MG, Francis  DB, Ribisl  KM, Pepper  JK, Brewer  NT.  Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies.  Tob Control. 2016;25(3):341-354. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051978PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    69.
    Noar  SM, Francis  DB, Bridges  C, Sontag  JM, Ribisl  KM, Brewer  NT.  The impact of strengthening cigarette pack warnings: systematic review of longitudinal observational studies.  Soc Sci Med. 2016;164(164):118-129. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.06.011PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    70.
    Hammond  D.  Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.  Tob Control. 2011;20(5):327-337. doi:10.1136/tc.2010.037630PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    72.
    Walker  MW, Navarro  MA, Hoffman  L, Wagner  DE, Stalgaitis  CA, Jordan  JW.  The Hip Hop peer crowd: An opportunity for intervention to reduce tobacco use among at-risk youth.  Addict Behav. 2018;82:28-34. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.014PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    73.
    Jordan  JW, Stalgaitis  CA, Charles  J, Madden  PA, Radhakrishnan  AG, Saggese  D.  Peer crowd identification and adolescent health behaviors: results from a statewide representative study.  Health Educ Behav. 2018;1090198118759148. doi:10.1177/1090198118759148PubMedGoogle Scholar
    74.
    Moran  MB, Sussman  S.  Translating the link between social identity and health behavior into effective health communication strategies: An experimental application using antismoking advertisements.  Health Commun. 2014;29(10):1057-1066. doi:10.1080/10410236.2013.832830PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    75.
    Baig  SA, Pepper  JK, Morgan  JC, Brewer  NT.  Social identity and support for counteracting tobacco company marketing that targets vulnerable populations.  Soc Sci Med. 2017;182:136-141. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.03.052PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    76.
    Massenburg-Smith  M, McCollum  M. Broccoli. 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K44j-sb1SRY. Accessed March 21, 2018.
    77.
    Woods  D. Now & Later. 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACPd7HSZkc0. Accessed March 21, 2018.
    78.
    Google. Advertising policies help: dangerous products or services. https://support.google.com/adwordspolicy/answer/6014299?hl=en. Accessed March 23, 2018.
    79.
    Statista. Number of YouTube users in the United States from 2014 to 2019 (in millions). https://www.statista.com/statistics/469152/number-youtube-viewers-united-states/. Accessed June 18, 2018.
    80.
    Statista. Number of YouTube users worldwide from 2016 to 2021 (in billions). https://www.statista.com/statistics/805656/number-youtube-viewers-worldwide/. Accessed June 18, 2018.
    81.
    Freeman  B, Chapman  S.  British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.  Tob Control. 2010;19(3):e1-e9. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.032847PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    82.
    Video not available in my country - YouTube Help. https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/92571?hl=en. Accessed June 15, 2018.
    83.
    Bushman  BJ, Cantor  J.  Media ratings for violence and sex. Implications for policymakers and parents.  Am Psychol. 2003;58(2):130-141. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.58.2.130PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    84.
    Gabrielli  J, Traore  A, Stoolmiller  M, Bergamini  E, Sargent  JD.  Industry television ratings for violence, sex, and substance use.  Pediatrics. 2016;138(3):e20160487. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-0487PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    85.
    Lee  K, Fooks  G, Wander  N, Fang  J.  Smoke rings: towards a comprehensive tobacco free policy for the Olympic Games.  PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0130091. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130091PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
    86.
    Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. NASCAR choice of non-tobacco sponsor is a victory for kids, health and auto cacing. https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/id_0658. Published June 6, 2017.
    ×