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Invited Commentary
November 19, 2018

Association of Interpersonal Violence With Women’s Health

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • 2Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • 3Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • 4Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • 5Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
JAMA Intern Med. Published online November 19, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.5242

The scale of interpersonal violence against women in the United States is striking; an estimated 1 in 3 women have been sexually assaulted, and 1 in 4 have been victims of intimate partner violence (IPV).1 The consequences include increased risk for mental and physical health problems including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, addiction, injury, chronic pain, disability, and possibly cardiovascular disease.1,2 Although research typically focuses on women of reproductive age, IPV and sexual assault also affect older women.

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    1 Comment for this article
    Menopause Symptoms
    Dr Hana Fayyad |
    Given that human body function is a reflection of hormonal and neurotransmitter interplay, the study results are no surprise. Traumatic life events have an  impact on serotonin, dopamine, and cortisol which are in intricate balance with estrogen. Prior to menopause a female estrogen fortune is sufficient to compensate for the consequential dipping of “happiness hormones” like dopamine and serotonin, so symptoms are rather restricted. With estrogen depletion at menopause, the balance is markedly tipped so symptoms of multiple hormonal disruption become blatant.
    That finding satiates a female mind, but i am not sure how effective are the means to
    preemptively fend off traumatic marital events when legislation and reality-especially in certain cultures- are so thwarting as regards protection of women from any sort of violence.