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Research Letter
October 21, 2019

Assessment of Pharmacy Closures in the United States From 2009 Through 2015

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pharmacy Systems, Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago
  • 2Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 3Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
  • 4Department of Health Systems Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago
  • 5Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago
JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(1):157-160. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.4588

Despite the critical role of pharmacies in the pharmaceutical supply chain and evidence that pharmacy closures contribute to nonadherence of prescription medications,1 there is limited information on the prevalence and risk factors for pharmacy closure. In this study, we examined trends in pharmacy closures in the United States between 2009 and 2015, and analyzed pharmacy, community, and market factors that might be associated with such closures. We hypothesized that pharmacies disproportionately serving publicly insured populations were at increased risk for closure owing to lower pharmacy reimbursement rates from Medicaid and Medicare.2 We also hypothesized that independent pharmacies were more likely to close because they often do not participate in preferred pharmacy networks.3

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