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At one time, chronic pain (lasting longer than 3 months) was routinely treated with opioid pain medications (oxycodone, morphine, codeine, etc). But we now know that opioids are less effective and more risky than we thought, so many people are choosing other ways to treat chronic pain.
Even when taken as directed, opioids can cause side effects. These include tolerance (requiring more medication to have the same effect), dependence (developing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking opioids), increased sensitivity to pain, depression and fatigue, constipation, low sex hormone levels, itching, sweating, and overdose (slowed breathing, sedation, and possibly death).
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Leyde S, Azari S. What Should I Know About Opioids and Living With Chronic Pain? JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(7):1036. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1679
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