Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rapidly becoming a significant public health problem. A staggering 19.2 million Americans, or 11% of the adult population, are currently living with CKD.1 Moreover, there are nearly 400 000 people in the United States with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), a number that is almost certain to rise owing to the high prevalence of CKD.2 Adding to the morbidity of CKD is the development of disturbances of mineral metabolism, which occurs in virtually all patients during the progression of their disease and is associated with bone loss and fractures, cardiovascular disease, immune suppression, and increased mortality.3
Sprague SM. Renal Function and Risk of Hip and Vertebral Fractures in Older Women: Is It Always Osteoporosis? Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(2):115–116. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.2.115
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