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After an extensive discussion of the literature on the symptomatology, etiology and pathology of birth palsies, Bentzon concludes that overstretching of the brachial plexus is the chief cause of the Duchenne-Erbs type, thereby endorsing the opinion of Clarke, Taylor and Trout. It is caused by lesions of the fifth and sixth cervical roots near the junction of these roots. The author made many anatomic and experimental studies in order to determine the reason for the peculiar distribution of the paralysis among the many muscles that are innervated by these nerves. The most constant finding is the fixation of the arm in inward rotation due to the fact that the subscapularis muscle is unaffected. It was found that the scaleni protected the proximal portions of these nerves against pressure; that traction on peripheral nerves is easily transmitted to the plexus, even to the roots; that by the use of a special
Clinical and Experimental Studies of the Obstetrical Palsies of Plexus Brachialis. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1925;35(2):287–288. doi:10.1001/archinte.1925.00120080139012
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