Jaundice is the condition due to the presence of bile pigment in the blood and is recognized clinically by the resultant staining of the skin, conjunctiva, mucous membranes, blood serum and, as a rule, the urine by the bile pigment.
Like albuminuria, jaundice is a symptom and not a disease, and may be encountered in a number of different conditions, the common and essential factor being obstruction to, or failure of, the normal process of excretion of the bile.
A mechanical obstruction to the passage of bile through the larger or extrahepatic bile ducts rapidly leads to resorption of pigments and the development of jaundice. The mechanism of this resorption and the pathway through which the absorbed bile enters the general circulation have been studied by many experimenters from the time of Saunders1 (1803) to that of Bloom2 (1923). The experiments of the former served to emphasize the importance of
GREENE CH, McVICAR CS, ROWNTREE LG, WALTERS W. DISEASES OF THE LIVER: III. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR HEPATIC FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1925;36(3):418–436. doi:10.1001/archinte.1925.00120150127007
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