The refinement of gall tract diagnosis in the last decade represents one of the most fascinating pages in the history of modern medicine. The contributions of Lyon,1 Smithies,2 George,3 Graham,4 Bernheim,5 van den Bergh6 and others are particularly noteworthy. Previous to ten years ago, the diagnosis of chronic gall tract disease was almost wholly dependent on clinical acumen in evaluating various symptom complexes and objective physical findings. Even now the clinical findings are of first importance, not only in furnishing evidence of pathologic morphology of the gall tract, but also in affording the indispensable key to a correct functional diagnosis or evaluation of the patients' gastro-intestinal symptoms. At the same time, in the suspected, borderline cases the clinical diagnosis can now be confirmed and further elaborated and refined, by cholecystography, other types of roentgenray evidence, transduodenal biliary drainage, and quantitative determination of the serum bilirubin.This article is based
MATEER JG, HENDERSON WS. CHRONIC BILIARY TRACT DISEASETHE DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1926;38(6):708–729. doi:10.1001/archinte.1926.00120300025003
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