Bronchomoniliasis was first described as a disease entity by Castellani1 in 1905, while he was working in Ceylon. The disease has since then been observed in various tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Cases have been reported from India, South Africa, West Africa, Soudan, Egypt, the Belgian Congo, South America, France, southern Italy and England. Boggs and Pincoffs2 also published records of a case from Baltimore.
Castellani and Chalmers stated that bronchomoniliasis is generally due to Monilia tropicalis in Ceylon, South India and the Malay States. They expressed the opinion that the fungus is the real cause of the disease, since no other etiologic agent, such as the tubercle bacillus, is found. Moreover, when the condition improves, the fungus becomes scanty or disappears completely. Castellani3 also described other nonpathogenic species of Monilia in chronic bronchitis. These species are M. paratropicalis, M. pinoy, M. krusei and others. We have found Monilia
GALBREATH WR, WEISS C. BRONCHOMONILIASISREPORT OF A CASE FROM PORTO RICO. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1928;42(4):500–507. doi:10.1001/archinte.1928.00130210048004
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