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Article
June 1934

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILUREXXI. OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING THE MECHANISM OF CARDIAC ASTHMA

Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1934;53(6):911-937. doi:10.1001/archinte.1934.00160120105010
Abstract

DEFINITION  The term "cardiac asthma" has been employed by different authors to designate various things. According to certain writers it includes any seizure of paroxysmal dyspnea occurring in a patient with cardiac disease. Other investigators restrict its use to attacks in which at the time of seizure there are auscultatory phenomena similar to those heard in bronchial asthma, i. e., coarse, squeaking, musical or sonorous râles. As used in this and in the future studies of the present series, the term cardiac asthma refers to paroxysms of dyspnea which (1) occur in patients with passive congestion of the lungs secondary to failure of the left side of the heart, (2) usually wake the patient from sound sleep but occasionally occur during the waking hours, (3) sometimes terminate in acute edema of the lungs, (4) are often but not necessarily precipitated by coughing, and (5) are not ordinarily associated with Cheyne-Stokes

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