A study of the cardiac output may be expected to throw light on the mechanism of the production of the clinical syndrome known as congestive heart failure. A number of such investigations have been made. Some authors1 have reported a decrease in the cardiac output in patients with congestive heart failure. Others2 have found the opposite, while still others have failed to observe any consistent change in this function.3 The validity of these data is obviously dependent on the accuracy of the methods employed. Grollman4 pointed out that the methods used have been of doubtful reliability in patients with heart failure, and that the conclusions which have been arrived at by these procedures are therefore of questionable accuracy. Recently Grollman and his co-workers5 have defined criteria for determining the applicability of methods for determining cardiac output to patients with cardiac disease, and a technic which appears to yield reliable results
HARRISON TR, FRIEDMAN B, CLARK G, RESNIK H. THE CARDIAC OUTPUT IN RELATION TO CARDIAC FAILURE. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1934;54(2):239–255. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1934.00160140082005
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