It has been conclusively demonstrated that the cardiac output of a normal person is increased by exercise.1 Likewise, in persons with compensated heart disease the occurrence of an essentially normal increase in cardiac output after moderate exercise has been reported by several investigators.2 Hitherto no studies have been described concerning the influence of exercise on the cardiac output of patients with congestive heart failure. The few studies relating to exercise and its influence on the cardiac output of patients with mild decompensation3 (able to ride a bicycle or climb stairs) are of doubtful accuracy because of technical difficulties inherent in the older methods for determination of the cardiac output in the presence of pulmonary congestion.4
Since the inability of a patient with organic heart disease to increase adequately the cardiac output with effort may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure,
McGUIRE J, SHORE R, HAUENSTEIN V, GOLDMAN F. INFLUENCE OF EXERCISE ON CARDIAC OUTPUT IN CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1939;63(3):469–475. doi:10.1001/archinte.1939.00180200038004
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