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The author observes the unity of the organism with its environment and the necessity of studying the reactions of the whole organism, but expresses the belief that "habitually coordinated activities exist within the human organism which have as good a claim to be studied as wholes as does the whole represented by the organism itself." He scales the functions of the organism on the basis of the speed and extent to which they promote adaptation. At the top of the scale are learning and remembering. Lower level functions include autonomic and metabolic activities, and lowest in the scale are those functions which take many generations to develop. Tension, emotion and mood are well considered from the standpoint that "tension is a state of psychobiological preparedness." The latest work on sleep, convulsive disorders, metabolic activities, drugs, endocrine glands and heredity is all considered in its relation to upper level functions. A
Objective and Experimental Psychiatry.. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1941;68(5):1040. doi:10.1001/archinte.1941.00200110192013
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