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Article
October 1943

COLD HEMAGGLUTINATION WITH SYMMETRIC GANGRENE OF THE TIPS OF THE EXTREMITIES: REPORT OF A CASE

Author Affiliations

Clinical Professor of Medicine NEW YORK

From the Medical Service of Harlem Hospital, City of New York Department of Hospitals, Dr. Oswald La Rotonda, director, and the Littauer Pneumonia Research Fund of New York University College of Medicine, Dr. Jesse G. M. Bullowa in charge.

Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1943;72(4):506-517. doi:10.1001/archinte.1943.00210100079006
Abstract

The antigen-antibody reaction between human erythrocytes and serum in which hemagglutination is observed only at low temperatures (below 20 C.) has attracted the attention of immunologists1 and clinicians2 for many years. Unusual serologic features of this reaction, its association with so many diverse pathologic states (Raynaud's syndrome, acute and chronic acquired hemolytic anemias, trypanosomiasis, acute bacterial infections, cirrhosis of the liver, leukemia, pernicious anemia, lymphoblastomas and bland venous thrombosis2a) and its presence in low titer in at least 95 per cent of normal persons3 have been recorded. There is only 1 report4 of the occurrence of gangrene of the extremities due to the action of a cold hemagglutinin. In the case we are reporting gangrene was much more extensive.

In the data that follow the essential characteristics of the phenomenon are presented. The differences between cold hemagglutination, panagglutination and pseudoagglutination (rouleau formation) will not be

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