Carbohydrate metabolism is abnormal in patients with manic-depressive, schizophrenic, and involutional psychoses. Fasting concentrations of true blood glucose and whole blood lactic acid are frequently elevated above the normal.1 The utilization of administered glucose is impaired to some degree in all patients, varying with the clinical status of the patient.1 Insulin resistance, manifested by a smaller than normal fall in the concentration of blood glucose after the administration of insulin, is also a common finding.* Mobilization of glucose from hepatic glycogen after the administration of epinephrine alone is normal or greater than normal in the psychoses under consideration, except in those patients with malnutrition or psychoses of long duration, where it may be decreased.† However, the mobilization of hepatic glycogen is less than normal in patients with good nutrition and psychoses of recent onset if insulin is administered prior to the administration of epinephrine.3 Also, blood glucose concentration often shows
HENNEMAN DH, ALTSCHULE MD, GONCZ R, DAVIS P. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Brain Disease: V. Effect of Epinephrine on Intermediary Carbohydrate Metabolism in Schizophrenic and Manic-Depressive Psychoses. AMA Arch Intern Med. 1955;95(4):594–600. doi:10.1001/archinte.1955.00250100100011
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