Roentgen visualization of the inferior vena cava has been found advantageous in many instances, since abnormalities of the venous circulation of the trunk and lower extremities are usually discovered late in the history of a patient's disease and even then are often poorly understood. A common basis for these pathological changes lies in partial or complete occlusion of the vena cava. Primary caval occlusion, as by intrinsic tumor or effort thrombus, is an extremely rare disease. The proximal cause of caval disease, whether metastatic tumor, growing thrombi, or benign compression, may not be suspected without such additional clues as may be furnished by visualizing the inferior vena cava roentgenologically.
Indications and Contraindications
The occasion frequently arises when the urologist, the internist, or the general surgeon needs to know more about the condition of the inferior vena cava and the immediately adjacent areas and when, in many such cases, surgical exploration
O'LOUGHLIN BJ. Caval Contrast Radiography. AMA Arch Intern Med. 1959;104(3):402–405. doi:10.1001/archinte.1959.00270090056009
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