A review of the recent literature reveals surprisingly few reports of the clinical syndrome of aplastic anemia associated with disseminated visceral candidiasis (moniliasis); in fact, an extensive search revealed only one other reported case, although it seems certain that such scarcity is due to lack of reporting rather than to rarity of the condition.
Gausewitz, Jones, and Worley 1 in 1951 reported the case of a 10-year-old white male with hypoplastic anemia, weight loss, and chronic cough. Candida albicans was cultured from the sputum following treatment with penicillin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. The disease process continued its chronic course, and the patient died 5 months after the onset of symptoms. At autopsy, there was candidial infiltration in the myocardium, thyroid gland, kidneys, and lungs; positive cultures for C. albicans were obtained from the spleen and lungs. The fungal lesions were very similar to those seen in the present case report; i.e.,
BENDEL WL, RACE GJ. Acute Disseminated Candidiasis in Aplastic Anemia: Potentiation by Antibiotics and Steroids. Arch Intern Med. 1961;108(6):916–924. doi:10.1001/archinte.1961.03620120100013
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