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November 1962

Malignant CarcinoidMetastasis to Skin and Production of Carcinoid Syndrome, Hypertension, Diarrhea, Dementia, and Hypopotassemia: A Case Report

Arch Intern Med. 1962;110(5):763-768. doi:10.1001/archinte.1962.03620230209029

Oberndorfer1 in 1907 coined the term carcinoid (karzinoide) for this particular type of tumor of the small bowel; but Lubarsch,2 in 1888, had described these tumors which he considered to be different from adenocarcinomas of the ileum. The association of carcinoid tumors with the carcinoid syndrome was first described by Biörck, Axen, and Thorson3 in 1952. A year later, Lembeck4 showed that this clinical entity was produced by excessive circulating serotonin.

Carcinoids are rare and have been estimated to represent no more than 0.1% to 0.5% of all tumors. It is even more unusual for them to be accompanied by the hypersecretion of serotonin and the development of the carcinoid syndrome.

Fleischmajer and Hyman5 in 1961 discussed the clinical significance of derangements of tryptophan metabolism and included a review of pellagra, carcinoid, and H disease. They outlined the highlights of what was then known of