Two years after the introduction of chloramphenicol the first case of fatal aplastic anemia associated with its use was reported.1 Subsequently, several similar cases were published.2-12
In addition to reports of serious aplastic anemia, other observations of hematopoietic toxicity have been reported in man and animals. Volini et al.13 in 1949 reported minimal marrow depression in man which remitted after removal of the drug. In 1951, Janbon and Bertrand14 observed the development of anemia unaccompanied by any disturbance of leukocytes or thrombocytes. Smith15 induced anemia without leukopenia in dogs by the administration of intramuscular chloramphenicol. Gruhzit et al.16 could not reproduce these results when the drug was given orally. After the administration of chloramphenicol to ducks, Rigdon et al.17 observed "degenerative changes in the erythroblasts within the bone marrow" and hypoplasia of this cell lineage, but these changes were not further defined. Krakoff
JIJI RM, GANGAROSA EJ, de la MACORRA F. Chloramphenicol and Its Sulfamoyl AnalogueReport of Reversible Erythropoietic Toxicity in Healthy Volunteers. Arch Intern Med. 1963;111(1):70–82. doi:10.1001/archinte.1963.03620250074011
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