In 1954, cycloserine (Oxamycin, D-4--amino-3-isoxazolidinone) was discovered in three laboratories in the United States to be a fermentation product of three species of Streptomyces.1-3 A flurry of reports followed, indicating cycloserine was of good effect in the treatment of a wide variety of non-acid-fast4-14 as well as acid-fast15-18 microbial infections. However, there has been little recent interest in the application of cycloserine to the treatment of infections caused by non-acid-fast microorganisms in this country—in contrast with interest abroad.8,9,12-14
Lack of establishment of cycloserine as an antibiotic useful in treating other than mycobacterial infections relates to at least two factors: (1) by conventional in vitro susceptibility testing, non-acid-fast bacteria generally appear to be resistant to cycloserine; (2) as employed in tuberculotherapy, untoward reactions occur rather frequently.
By simultaneous testing of 293 clinical isolates of bacteria representative of 11 bacterial groups, using two synthetic media which differed only
HOEPRICH PD. Alanine: Cycloserine AntagonismII. Significance of Phenomenon to Therapy With Cycloserine. Arch Intern Med. 1963;112(3):405–414. doi:10.1001/archinte.1963.03860030159019
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