The nephrotic syndrome is a complex clinical disorder, characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipemia, and edema. The syndrome can be caused by various conditions and is not a distinct disease entity. It is observed in generalized diseases which affect the kidneys, such as diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, amyloidosis; after exposure to certain drugs or heavy metals; from interference with the renal circulation, as in renal vein thrombosis, or constrictive pericarditis; and it also occurs due to intrinsic renal disease, the so-called primary form of the nephrotic syndrome.1-9 In the primary form of the nephrotic syndrome, the pathological changes as revealed by percutaneous renal biopsies are multiple and variable. Clinically, the course of the illness and the response to therapy are also variable, and a question which remains to be answered is whether the primary form of the nephrotic syndrome represents different diseases or different stages of one disease.
PEARL MA, BURCH RR, CARVAJAL E, McCRACKEN BH, WOODY HB, STERNBERG WH. Nephrotic Syndrome: A Clinical and Pathological Study. Arch Intern Med. 1963;112(5):716–726. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1963.03860050103011
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