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Dr. P. Kutumbiah has written an erudite and systematic study of ancient Indian medicine and surgery and many of its branches that is much more practical for use by the medical historian than is Jolly's work.
Writing was known and employed in the Indus Valley civilization during the third and second millenia BC, but its peculiar script has yet to be deciphered. Indian prehistory extends from the earliest times to the Aryan invasion of India about 1500 BC. The archaeological discoveries at Harappa, Mohenjo-dāro, Chanhu-dāro, and other sites in the Indus Valley have disclosed that at the dawn of history there existed in the plains of the lower Indus an extensive, highly evolved chalcolithic civilization. This Indus Valley civilization was contemporaneous with those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Crete, and there was intimate contact between them all. Ancient Indian medicine was most probably derived from the Indus Valley civilization and must
Raddin JB. Ancient Indian Medicine.. Arch Intern Med. 1964;113(6):922–923. doi:10.1001/archinte.1964.00280120122051
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