Introduction and Review of the Literature
More than 50% of abdominal carcinoids arise in the appendix, the remainder from the gastrointestinal tract distal to the esophagus, primarily the small intestine. Carcinoid of the appendix rarely induces metastases. MacDonald1 reported distant metastases to the liver or lung in 16.4% of 146 extraappendiceal carcinoids. Bone metastasis was an uncommon finding. Dick et al2 reported a case of abdominal carcinoid with an osteoblastic metastasis to the humerus. Pochaczevsky and Sherman3 reported a gastric carcinoid with multiple osteolytic metastases. Jaffe4 described a histologically proved osteoblastic metastasis in the humerus. Three additional cases of bone metastases from intestinal carcinoid have been reported. In these, the x-ray appearance was not described.5-7 In 1960 Toomey and Felson8 reported on a case of intestinal carcinoid and one of bronchial carcinoid, both with osteoblastic bone metastases. Two additional patients with bronchial adenomas, the
HYMAN GA, WELLS J. Bronchial Carcinoid With Osteoblastic MetastasesCases With Carcinoid Syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 1964;114(4):541–546. doi:10.1001/archinte.1964.03860100123016
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