SIXTY-FIVE years ago Georg Kelling, MD, a surgeon of Dresden, Germany, demonstrated that the intra-abdominal organs of a dog could be visualized by inserting a cystoscope through a small incision in the animal's anterior abdominal wall.1 The technique soon was applied to humans by Jacobaeus, and European physicians began to use what they called "laparoscopy" to aid in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal disease.2 Bertram Bernheim, MD, first reported performance of the procedure in the United States in 1910.3 He used a modified proctosigmoidoscope to carry out what he called "organoscopy." In 1920, Benjamin Orndoff, MD, coined the term "peritoneoscopy" which has become the accepted name for the procedure in this country.4 The leading proponent of peritoneoscopy in America was John Ruddock, MD, who in the 1930's designed a peritoneoscope which became the standard instrument in the United States 5 (Fig 1).
European physicians have been quick
Scott NM, Hitzelberger AL, Parker GW, Durden WD, Langdon DE. Role of Peritoneoscopy in Diagnosis of Intra-abdominal Disease. Arch Intern Med. 1967;120(2):207–213. doi:10.1001/archinte.1967.00300020079010
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