Daily determinations of urinary lysozyme levels, serum β1C (C3) and β1E (C4)globulin concentrations, number of small mononucleated cells in the urinary sediment, and serum heterophil-antibody titers were carried out in 22 patients undergoing renal allotransplantation in order to determine which of these alterations are related to rejection episodes. Small mononuclear cells appeared in the urinary sediment at irregular intervals and displayed no relationship to onset of rejection. Similarly, heterophil-antibody titers rose in relation to only half the episodes of acute rejection, and similar fluctuations were observed in six of 11 patients who did not undergo acute rejection reactions. Urinary lysozyme excretion, on the other hand, was a sensitive indicator of renal tubular damage, and instability of serum complement levels occurred during clinically diagnosed rejection episodes.
Shehadeh IH, Carpenter CB, Monterio CH, Merrill JP. Renal Allograft Rejection: An Analysis of Lysozymuria, Serum Complement, Lymphocyturia, and Heterophil Antibodies. Arch Intern Med. 1970;125(5):850–857. doi:10.1001/archinte.1970.00310050088010
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