One hundred Salmonella isolations from 95 patients at Memorial Cancer Center over a 13-year period were reviewed. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella derby made up 61% of the isolations. Practically all patients had serious underlying disease, and most were under or had undergone recent adrenocorticosteroid treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery. The predisposition of patients with recent surgery to salmonellosis was reaffirmed. A striking relationship was found between patients with leukemia and lymphoma and S typhimurium septicemia. It is suggested that the hemolytic component in these diseases may predispose to S typhimurium septicemia, and these diseases should perhaps be included with sickle-cell disease, bartonellosis, and malaria in having a specific predisposition to associated salmonellosis. A number of unusual Salmonella infections were noted.