There is a tendency to replace long-term epidemiologic studies of vascular diseases with intervention studies in the hope to prevent them. Two main factors singled out for intervention on a community level are hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. It was learned from clinical studies in the past, usually involving small numbers of subjects, that for lack of health education, money, and transportation and because of poor motivation or the development of side effects, or both, drug therapy of asymptomatic chronic conditions other than diabetes is being frequently interrupted or stopped. Before embarking on an intervention study, we were interested in finding out to what extent the present medical management has influenced hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in the community over an 87-month period. Significant decreases of blood pressure had occurred in 6.5% of whites and 4.6% of blacks, significant decreases in cholesterol in 7.4% of whites and 5.6% of blacks.