The hemodynamic properties of glucagon hydrochloride and isoproterenol hydrochloride were compared in anesthetized mongrel dogs before and after complete β-adrenergic blockade with propranolol hydrochloride. Before propranolol blockade, glucagon and isoproterenol enhanced myocardial performance, although the action of glucagon persisted longer than that of isoproterenol. Following propranolol blockade, glucagon enhanced myocardial contractility and heart rate to a greater extent than isoproterenol. Glucagon is clinically superior in reversing the toxic effects of propranolol.
Kosinski EJ, Malindzak GS. Glucagon and Isoproterenol in Reversing Propranolol Toxicity. Arch Intern Med. 1973;132(6):840–843. doi:10.1001/archinte.1973.03650120048009
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