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This study is limited to 19-year-old men conceived and born during 1943 through 1946. Conception was measured as occurring in the tenth month before birth. All received complete medical and psychological examinations administered by the military organization of the Netherlands. The sample populations from the areas along the coast, suffering from famine for approximately six months in 1944 and 1945, were compared with those from the same area before and after suffering from acute famine as well as with samples from the North and South where famine did not occur. Only those subjects conceived and born in cities of 40,000 people or more are reported, on the assumption that famine would be felt more acutely by the population of a city without access to rural food supplies. As military induction excluded only about 3% of young men mentally or physically unable to participate, the sample may be considered as representative
Ohlson MA. Famine and Human Development. Arch Intern Med. 1976;136(11):1332–1333. doi:10.1001/archinte.1976.03630110090029
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