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August 1981

The Resurgence of MalariaDiagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemmas

Arch Intern Med. 1981;141(9):1123-1124. doi:10.1001/archinte.1981.00340090019006

The worldwide prevalence of malaria has increased dramatically during the past decade. In countries such as India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, where eradication programs sponsored by the World Health Organization had previously interrupted parasite transmission, the disease incidence has increased 100-fold.1,2 At present, it is estimated that there are more than 150 million malarious persons living in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; of these, more than 1 million persons die annually as a consequence of their disease.2,3 The development of insecticide resistance among anopheline mosquitoes, drug resistance among Plasmodium species, and socioeconomic difficulties in many of the endemic countries make it likely that this phenomenon will persist for years to come.

This resurgence of malaria, together with an increase in international travel, has resulted in an upsurge in the number of infected patients who enter the United States. From 1969 to 1979, the number of civilian malaria cases

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