The extracellular hydrogen ion concentration is maintained almost constant through an interacting series of processes. These include the activities of the chemical buffers, the regulation of the carbon dioxide level by the pulmonary system, and the excretion of acid or alkali by the kidney. Understanding of these basic processes will provide a rational basis for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical acid-base abnormalities.
Masoro EJ. An Overview of Hydrogen Ion Regulation. Arch Intern Med. 1982;142(5):1019–1023. doi:10.1001/archinte.1982.00340180177029
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