• Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs primarily in individuals with chronic hepatitis B infection and cirrhosis. This tumor is curable only when diagnosed at an early stage and then surgically resected. Therefore, screening tests have been used to identify small tumors in high-risk patients. Currently, the most sensitive and specific tests available involve measurement of serum αfetoprotein levels and high-resolution ultrasonography. The results of these tests are often complementary in making a diagnosis. To be most cost-effective, the frequency of screening can be adjusted to the degree of risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
(Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:1741-1744)
Regan LS. Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in High-Risk Individuals: A Clinical Review. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149(8):1741–1744. doi:10.1001/archinte.1989.00390080027007
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