The frequency of complications in patients with cocaine-associated myocardial infarction is unknown. This study was performed to determine the short-term morbidity and mortality secondary to cocaine-associated myocardial infarction.
We performed a retrospective cohort study at 29 hospital centers throughout the United States. Patients with cocaine-associated myocardial infarction that occurred between 1987 and 1993 were identified through record review. The primary outcome measures were inhospital mortality and the incidence and timing of major cardiovascular complications.
Cocaine-associated myocardial infarction was identified 136 times in 130 patients. Patients were generally young (mean age, 38 years), nonwhite (72%), tobacco smokers (91%) with a history of cocaine use in the past 24 hours (88%). The initial electrocardiogram disclosed infarction in 44% and ischemia in an additional 18% of patients. Myocardial infarctions were evenly distributed between anterior (45%) and inferior (44%) and were most often non—Q-wave (61%). Complications occurred 64 times in 49 patients (36%; 95% confidence interval, 28% to 44%), including congestive heart failure in nine patients, ventricular tachycardia in 23 patients, supraventricular tachycardia in six patients, and brady-dysrhythmias in 26 patients. Most patients who had complications (90%) had them within 12 hours of presentation. Acute in-hospital mortality was 0% (95% confidence interval, 0% to 2%).
The mortality of patients hospitalized with cocaine-associated myocardial infarction was low. The majority of complications occurred within 12 hours of presentation.(Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:1081-1086)
Hollander JE, Hoffman RS, Burstein JL, et al. Cocaine-Associated Myocardial Infarction: Mortality and Complications. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(10):1081–1086. doi:10.1001/archinte.1995.00430100117013
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