Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects an increasing number of women in the United States, we investigated the role played by gender in the occurrence of HIV-related oral conditions.
As part of a 4-year prospective study of 3 epidemiological cohorts, oral and physical examinations (including blood tests) were performed on HIV-infected men (n=200) and women (n=218) at 6-month intervals. Our outcome variables included oral conditions commonly associated with HIV infection: hairy leukoplakia, candidiasis, ulcers, warts, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and parotid enlargement.
Only hairy leukoplakia, candidiasis, and ulcers were observed. The occurrence of hairy leukoplakia and candidiasis was higher in men (22% and 24%, respectively) than in women (9% and 13%, respectively) during the study period. A regression model for longitudinal data (generalized estimating equation) disclosed that the odds of having hairy leukoplakia were 2.5 times higher for men than for women, after controlling for CD4+ cell count, race, and injecting drug use (95% confidence interval, 1.34-4.76; P=.003). Length of follow-up did not confound this association. A weaker association was found between the occurrence of oral candidiasis and gender (adjusted odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.43; P=.05).
In this sample of HIV-infected adults, we found that men were significantly more likely to have hairy leukoplakia than were women. The hairy leukoplakiagender association merits further investigation, because it may be related to a gender difference in the mode of expression of Epstein-Barr virus.Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:2249-2254
Shiboski CH, Hilton JF, Neuhaus JM, Canchola A, Greenspan D. Human Immunodeficiency Virus—Related Oral Manifestations and Gender: A Longitudinal Analysis. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156(19):2249–2254. doi:10.1001/archinte.1996.00440180113014
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