Beumer and Peiper1 were undoubtedly the first fully to appreciate the possibility of an active immunization against infection with the typhoid bacillus. In 1887 they were able to prove that mice that have recovered from a non-fatal infection with living typhoid bacilli are frequently protected against subsequent, larger, and usually fatal doses of the same organism. In their most successful experiment they found that the best results were obtained by the gradual increase in dosage on successive inoculations, and they further suggest that it may be possible to immunize by means of sterilized cultures, which, as had already been shown, contain the toxic principle of the typhoid bacillus. They raise the question as to whether it might not be possible to immunize human beings by means of gradually increasing amounts of such killed cultures. In the following year Chantemesse and Widal,2 following the work of
GAY FP, CLAYPOLE EJ. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF METHODS OF PROPHYLACTIC IMMUNIZATION AGAINST TYPHOID FEVER: STUDIES IN TYPHOID IMMUNIZATION. V. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1914;XIV(5):671–705. doi:10.1001/archinte.1914.00070170064005
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