That high venous pressures occur in cases of cardiac decompensation has been observed by Gaertner,1 Moritz2 and von Tabora,3 Frank and Reh,4 Sewall,5 Schott,6 Hooker and Eyster,7 and others. The routine measurement of venous pressure at frequent intervals as a means of following the stages of compensation or decompensation, however, has received little attention. The following investigation was undertaken with the purpose of ascertaining whether there is any diagnostic or prognostic significance in repeated venous pressure observations on cardiac cases. A number of instruments and methods have been devised by various workers to measure venous pressure. The technic and relative value of the methods used until 1914 have been summarized by Austin.8 Of these, the direct method of Moritz and von Tabora of introducing a hollow needle directly into the vein, while perhaps giving a greater refinement of accuracy,
CLARK AH. A STUDY OF THE DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF VENOUS PRESSURE OBSERVATIONS IN CARDIAC DISEASE. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1915;XVI(4):587–604. doi:10.1001/archinte.1915.00080040083006
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