Although preventable and treatable, malaria, tuberculosis (TB), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) together kill more than 5 million people annually. The burden of these diseases can be reduced—but only with increased governmental and nongovernmental resources, effective public-private partnerships, and strengthened disease-specific and general health systems.
Nearly half the world's population lives in areas vulnerable to malaria, and an estimated 1 million people die from malaria each year,1 most of them children younger than 5 years. The most effective tools to control malaria—indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS) with pyrethroids, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), or other insecticides; use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs); and rapid diagnostic tests and effective case management with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs)—could decrease malaria mortality by 30% to 80%.
Frieden TR, Teklehaimanot A, Chideya S, Farmer P, Kim JY, Raviglione MC. A Road Map to Control Malaria, Tuberculosis, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(18):1650–1652. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.309