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    1 Comment for this article
    Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older Predisposed Women,
    Sergio Stagnaro, MD | Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics Laboratory,
    This fascinating paper is really interesting and useful, emphasising the possible cognitive decline in older women exposed to particulate air pollution (1). However,it is fundamentally important not to overlook the inherited real risk of brain disorder illustrated in previous papers (2-4). Older women are not born equal or the same, especially regarding their predisposition to brain disorders and to CoQ10 tissue level, considering the frequent incidence of Ubidecarenone deficiency syndrome about which only some physicians around the world know (5). In addition, not all women, living under the same environmental condition, are suffering from cognitive decline. Finally, we have to consider in every older women quantum biophysical semeiotic constitutions "and" related inherited real risks, e.g., diabetic constitution (6)
    1) J Weuve; RC Puett; J Schwartz; JD Yanosky; F Laden; Fr Grodstein. Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older Women. Arch Intern Med 2012; 172: 219-227.
    2) St Sergio. Inherited Real Risk of Brain Disorders. www.plos.org, 24 July 2009. http://www.plosone.org/article/comments/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0006354;jsessionid=9AC82C42FA9F57C913844806BF96DDC1
    3)S Stagnaro. Functional Decline in Aging , Brain Inherited Real Risk, and Co Q10 Deficiency Syndrome. 15 May, 2011. http://wwwshiphusemeioticscom-stagnaro.blogspot.com/2011/05/functional- decline-in-aging-brain.html
    4) S Caramel, S Stagnaro. Clinical QBS Diagnosis and Primary Prevention of Brain Disorder ‘Inherited Real Risk’ and Alzheimer Disease. Journal of Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics. 5 August, 2011. http://www.sisbq.org/uploads/5/6/8/7/5687930/alzheimer_primaryprevention.pdf
    5)Stagnaro-Neri M, Stagnaro S. Sindrome clinica percusso- ascoltatoria da carenza di Co Q10. Medic. Geriatr. XXIV, 239, 1993.
    6) Stagnaro S, West PJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC. Diet and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 24;346(4):297-298. [Medline]

    Conflict of Interest: None declared
    Original Investigation
    Feb 13, 2012

    Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Cognitive Decline in Older Women

    Author Affiliations

    Author Affiliations: Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (Dr Weuve); Department of Environmental Health (Drs Weuve, Schwartz, and Laden); Department of Epidemiology (Drs Schwartz, Laden, and Grodstein), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Maryland Institute of Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park (Dr Puett); Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Drs Schwartz, Laden, and Grodstein); and Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania (Dr Yanosky).

    Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(3):219-227. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.683

    Background Chronic exposure to particulate air pollution may accelerate cognitive decline in older adults, although data on this association are limited. Our objective was to examine long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution, both coarse ([PM 2.5-10 μm in diameter [PM2.5-10]) and fine (PM <2.5 μm in diameter [PM2.5]), in relation to cognitive decline.

    Methods The study population comprised the Nurses' Health Study Cognitive Cohort, which included 19 409 US women aged 70 to 81 years. We used geographic information system–based spatiotemporal smoothing models to estimate recent (1 month) and long-term (7-14 years) exposures to PM2.5-10, and PM2.5 preceding baseline cognitive testing (1995-2001) of participants residing in the contiguous United States. We used generalized estimating equation regression to estimate differences in the rate of cognitive decline across levels of PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 exposures. The main outcome measure was cognition, via validated telephone assessments, administered 3 times at approximately 2-year intervals, includ-ing tests of general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency, working memory, and attention.

    Results Higher levels of long-term exposure to both PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 were associated with significantly faster cognitive decline. Two-year decline on a global score was 0.020 (95% CI, −0.032 to −0.008) standard units worse per 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5-10 exposure and 0.018 (95% CI, −0.035 to −0.002) units worse per 10 μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 exposure. These differences in cognitive trajectory were similar to those between women in our cohort who were approximately 2 years apart in age, indicating that the effect of a 10-μg/m3 increment in long-term PM exposure is cognitively equivalent to aging by approximately 2 years.

    Conclusion Long-term exposure to PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 at levels typically experienced by many individuals in the United States is associated with significantly worse cognitive decline in older women.