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A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions aimed at reducing chronic alcohol use and related harm, focusing on individuals attending primary care practices. Seventeen trials reported a measure of alcohol consumption, of which 8 reported a significant effect. The adjusted intention-to-treat meta-analysis showed a mean pooled difference of −38 g of ethanol per week in favor of the brief alcohol intervention group, corresponding to a decrease of about 4 drinks. The reduction in alcohol consumption was persistent at 6 and 12 months.
Both microvascular disease and hypertension have been linked with risk of diabetes mellitus. This study examined the association of retinal arteriolar narrowing and hypertension with risk of diabetes in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3251 persons living in Wisconsin. After controlling for baseline risk factors, retinal arteriolar narrowing and hypertension were independently associated with incident diabetes. Individuals with both hypertension and retinal arteriolar narrowing were 3-times more likely to develop diabetes (relative risk, 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.66- 6.98) compared with normotensive individuals without arteriolar narrowing. These results suggest a link between systemic arteriolar disease associated with hypertension and diabetes development.
In This Issue of Archives of Internal Medicine. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(9):972. doi:10.1001/archinte.165.9.972
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