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Original Investigation
March 23, 1998

Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease in Women

Author Affiliations

From the Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Mich.

Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(6):617-621. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.6.617

Background  Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the United States. Although CHD is less common in premenopausal women than in men, this difference begins to disappear after the onset of menopause, presumably related to reduced levels of female sex hormones.

Results  An association between both a postmenopausal increase in blood pressure and CHD that coincide with loss of ovarian function suggests that estrogen and/or progesterone may be protective against hypertension and CHD. Diabetes removes the normal sex difference in the prevalence of CHD. Increased mortality in women with CHD and diabetes compared with women without diabetes has been observed in epidemiological studies.

Conclusions  Diabetes appears to obviate the protective effects of female sex hormones. Possible reasons for this catastrophic effect of diabetes in women are discussed.