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For this comparative case study of 12 advanced primary care practices (PCPs) in the United States, Rubinstein and colleagues conducted 10 to 12 days of ethnographic data collection in each PCP, including interviews with practice personnel and patient pathways with cancer survivors. Fieldnotes, transcripts, and practice documents were analyzed within and across cases to identify salient themes. Results showed that cancer survivorship must become a recognized clinical category with actionable care plans supported by a functional information system infrastructure. Tonorezos and Conigliaro provide the Invited Commentary.
For this cohort study of US women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study II, Tobias and colleagues prospectively evaluated the association of a history of gestational diabetes with incident cardiovascular risk. Results showed that gestational diabetes was positively associated with cardiovascular disease later in life, although the absolute rate of cardiovascular disease in this younger cohort of predominantly white women was low. Gunderson and Jaffe provide the Invited Commentary.
Continuing Medical Education
For this cohort study, Makaroun and colleagues examined the the association of wealth with mortality and disability among older adults in the United States and England. A total of 6233 US respondents and 4325 English respondents aged 54 to 64 years (younger cohort) and 5940 US respondents and 3274 English respondents aged 66 to 76 years (older cohort) were analyzed for the mortality outcome, and results showed that low wealth was associated with death and disability in both the United States and England. This relationship was apparent from age 54 years and continued into later life. McKee and Stuckler provide the Invited Commentary.
Author Video Interview
For this cohort simulation model study, Tasillo and colleagues estimated health outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness of latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment among non-US born residents with and without medical comorbidities. Results showed that testing for and treating latent tuberculosis infection among non-US born residents with and without selected comorbidities is likely cost-effective except among those with end-stage renal disease, in whom competing risks of death limit benefits. Flood and Barry provide the Invited Commentary.
For this prospective longitudinal study, Guille and colleagues examined the presence and magnitude of a sex difference in depressive symptoms and work-family conflict among training physicians and if work-family conflict affects the sex difference in depressive symptoms among training physicians. Results showed that depressive symptoms increase substantially during the internship year for men and women but that this increase is greater for women. The study also identifies work-family conflict as an important potentially modifiable factor that is associated with elevated depressive symptoms in training physicians. Shea and Bellini provide the Invited Commentary.
For this population-based cohort study with subgroup analysis, Haaland and colleagues used the Norwegian National Registry coupled with the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Cancer Registry of Norway to identify cancer diagnosis in persons born between January 1, 1924, and December 31, 1954, who were residing in Norway during the 7-year observation period (January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2012). Results showed that warfarin use may have broad anticancer potential in persons older than 50 years, which could have important implications for the selection of medications for patients needing anticoagulation.
For this retrospective study, Stevens and colleagues analyzed admissions for the 20 most common medical diagnoses among elderly fee-for-service Medicare patients from January 1 through December 31, 2013, for differences in the use of health care resources and outcomes among hospitalists, primary care physicians, or other generalists. Results demonstrated that patients cared for by their own primary care physician had slightly longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to be discharged home but also were less likely to die within 30 days compared with those cared for by hospitalists or other generalists. Landefeld and Willett provide the Invited Commentary.
Author Audio Interview
For this randomized clinical trial, Wang and colleagues compared the effect of smoking cessation (SC) of a combined intervention involving brief, model-guided SC advice plus active referral to SC services (active referral group) with those of brief, model-guided SC advice only (brief advice group) and general SC advice only (control group). Participants included adult daily smokers in the general Hong Kong community proactively recruited to participate in the Quit-to-Win Contest held in 2015. Results showed that an intervention involving brief advice and active referral delivered to smokers in the community by volunteers can increase quitting in places where SC services are available but underused.
Highlights. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(12):1709–1711. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.6179
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