[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words
    Original Investigation
    February 11, 2019

    Assessment of Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in the Prescription of Opioids and Other Controlled Medications in California

    Author Affiliations
    • 1David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)
    • 2Department of Emergency Medicine, UCLA
    • 3Center for Social Medicine and Humanities, UCLA
    • 4Department of Geography, UCLA
    • 5Maroon Society, Los Angeles, California
    • 6Associate Editor, JAMA
    JAMA Intern Med. 2019;179(4):469-476. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6721
    Key Points

    Question  Does differential prescribing of opioids by race/ethnicity and income class explain opioid overdoses concentrated among low-income white communities?

    Findings  In prescription drug monitoring program data from 2011 through 2015, 44.2% of all adults in California in the regions with the lowest-income/highest proportion–white population received at least 1 opioid prescription annually compared with 16.1% in the regions with the highest-income/lowest proportion–white population and 23.6% across California. Opioid overdose deaths were concentrated in lower-income, mostly white regions, with a 10-fold difference in overdose rates across the race/ethnicity–income gradient.

    Meaning  Race/ethnicity and income class disparities existing in access to opioids via the California health care system may have played a role in the race/ethnicity–income pattern of overdose deaths in the current opioid epidemic.


    Importance  Most drug epidemics in the United States have disproportionately affected nonwhite communities. Notably, the current opioid epidemic is heavily concentrated among low-income white communities, and the roots of this racial/ethnic phenomenon have not been adequately explained.

    Objective  To examine the degree to which differential exposure to opioids via the health care system by race/ethnicity and income could be driving the observed social gradient of the current opioid epidemic, as well as to compare the trends in the prevalence of prescription opioids with those observed for stimulants and benzodiazepines.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  This population-based study used 2011 through 2015 records from California’s prescription drug monitoring program (Controlled Substance Utilization Review and Evaluation System), which longitudinally tracks all patients receiving controlled substance prescriptions in the state and contained unique records for 29.7 million individuals who received such a prescription from 2011 to 2015. Data were analyzed between January and May 2018.

    Exposures  A total of 1760 zip code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) in California, with associated racial/ethnic composition and per capita income.

    Main Outcomes and Measures  The percentage of individuals receiving at least 1 prescription each year was calculated for opioids, benzodiazepines, and stimulants.

    Results  A nearly 300% difference in opioid prescription prevalence across the race/ethnicity–income gradient was observed in California, with 44.2% of adults in the quintile of ZCTAs with the lowest-income/highest proportion–white population receiving at least 1 opioid prescription each year compared with 16.1% in the quintile with the highest-income/lowest proportion–white population and 23.6% of all individuals 15 years or older. Stimulant prescriptions were highly concentrated in mostly white high-income areas, with a prevalence of 3.8% among individuals in the quintile with the highest-income/highest proportion–white population and a prevalence of 0.6% in the quintile with the lowest-income/lowest proportion–white population. Benzodiazepine prescriptions did not have an income gradient but were concentrated in mostly white areas, with 15.7% of adults in the quintile of ZCTAs with the highest proportion–white population receiving at least 1 prescription each year compared with 7.0% among the quintile with the lowest proportion–white population.

    Conclusions and Relevance  The race/ethnicity and income pattern of opioid overdoses mirrored prescription rates, suggesting that differential exposure to opioids via the health care system may have induced the large, observed racial/ethnic gradient in the opioid epidemic. Across drug categories, controlled medications were much more likely to be prescribed to individuals living in majority-white areas. These discrepancies may have shielded nonwhite communities from the brunt of the prescription opioid epidemic but also represent disparities in treatment and access to all medications.